New Testament Manuscripts

Numbers 1-500

Note: In the catalog which follows, bold type indicates a fullentry. Plain type indicates a short entry, which may occur under anothermanuscript.

Contents: 1eap and Family 1 *1r *2ap *4e *5 *6 *7e *13 and Family 13 *16 *18 *21 *22 *27 *28 *33 *35 *38 *42 *43 *59 *60 *61 *66 *69 *71 *81 *82 *83 *91 *93 *94 *104 *110 *115 *118 *124: see under 13 and Family 13 *131: see under 1 and Family 1 *138 *141 *157 *160 *162 *174 *175 *177 *179 *180 *181 *185 *189 *201 *203 *205 *206 *209: see under 1 and Family 1 *213 *223 *225 *229 *230: see under 13 and Family 13 *235 *245 *249 *251 *256: see under 365 and Family 2127 *262 *263 *265 *267 *270 *273 *280 *291 *304 *307 *314 *317 *319 *322: see under 1739 and Family 1739; also 323 *323 *330 and Family 330 *346: see under 13 and Family 13 *348 *349 *356 *365 and Family 2127 *372 *383 *423 *424 *429 *430 *431 *436 *442 *443 *451 *453 and Family 453 *472 *473 *476 *477 *482 *485 *489 *495

Manuscript 1eapand Family 1

Location/Catalog Number

Basel. Catalog number: University Library A. N. IV. 2.


1 contains the entire New Testament except the Apocalypse. It is writtenon parchment, one column per page.


Usually dated paleographically to the twelfth century. (Scrivener, however,gives the date as the tenth century while noting that Burgon dated it to thetwelfth or thirteenth.) Originally contained a set of illuminations, but mostof these were extracted by 1862. One of the illustrations is thought to be ofthe Byzantine Emperor Leo VI (reigned 886-911) and his sonConstantine Porphyrogenitus (reigned 911-959), which seems to be the basis forthe tenth century date. Scrivener notes that Hebrews is the lastbook in Paul, and that as bound the gospels appear at the end of the volume.The writing style is described as "elegant and minute," and"fully furnished with breathings, accents, andι adscript. Theinitial letters are gilt, and on the first page of each gospel the fullpoint is a large gilt ball." Hatch reports, "Words writtencontinuously and without separation; accents and breathings; ruling with asharp point; letters pendents; high, middle, and low points, comma, andinterrogation point...." It has the Ammonian sections and lectionarynotes but not the Eusebian canons.

Description and Text-type

That 1 has a not-entirely-Byzantine text has been known at least since 1516,when Erasmus consulted it to compile the Textus Receptus.For the Gospels, Erasmus worked primarily from 1, 2e, and the vulgate,but he preferred the latter two as 1's text appeared to be aberrant.

In recent centuries, this "aberrant" text came to be recognizedas valuable; 1 was, for instance, one of the very few minuscules cited byTregelles, and Hort mentions it as having a relatively high number ofpre-Syrian readings. (All of this, it should be noted, applies only in thegospels; elsewhere 1 appears to be an entirely ordinary Byzantine text.)

A crucial discovery came in 1902, when Kirsopp Lake published Codex 1of the Gospels and its Allies. This work established the existence of thetextual family known as "Family 1" or "the Lake Group"(symbolized in NA26 as f1 and in earlier editions asλ; von Soden calls thegroup Iη).In addition to these basic four (1, 118, 131, 209),we now consider 205, 205abs,872 (Mark only), 884 (in part), 1582, 2193, and 2542 (in part) to be membersof the family.Within the type, 1 and 1582 form a close pair (they also seem to be the bestrepresentatives of the family). 205 goes with 209; in fact, Lake thought205 a descendent of 209; although Wisse disagrees, the only differencesbetween the two seem to be Byzantine corruptions, usually if not always in205.

The most obvious characteristic of the Lake Group is that these manuscriptsplace John 7:53-8:11 after John 21:25. In addition, 1 and 1582 contain ascholion questioning the authenticity of Mark 16:9-20.

Von Soden classifies 1 as Iηa(i.e. Family 1) in the Gospels and Ia3 in the Acts and Epistles. Alandand Aland list it as Category III in the Gospelsand Category V elsewhere. Wisselists it as a core member of Family 1, and "close to 1582."

This does not settle the question of what sort of text is found in Family 1.Here the name of B. H. Streeter is most important. Streeter, working largelyon the basis of data supplied by Lake, proposed that Family 1, along with theKoridethi Codex (Θ),Family 13, the minuscules 28, 565, 700, and the Armenian and Georgian versions,were the remnants of what he labelled the"Cæsarean Text."Streeter's theory, however, has become controversial in recent years,and cannot be discussed here. See the article onText-Types and Textual Kinship; also thevery brief mention in the entry on 13 and Family 13. It might benoted that even Streeter concedes Family 1 to be somewhat more Alexandrianthan the other "Cæsarean Text" witnesses.

In fact the relationship between Family 1 and the other "Cæsarean"witnesses is somewhat uncertain. While the other members of the type often do showsome sort of special relationship to each other, that of Family 1 to the others isslightly weaker. Streeter would define the "Cæsarean" witnesses in termsof non-Byzantine agreements. The following table shows the percentages of non-Byzantineagreements for certain leading "Cæsarean" witnesses (with B, D, andE thrown in for controls). The table is based on a set of 990 sample readings:

ΘFamily 1Family 13
Family 1125/156=80%-92/121=76%
Family 13115/145=79%92/121=76%-
28 (Mark)37/50=74%34/45=76%37/39=95%

The interpretation of these results is left as an exercise for the reader.

The following offers a brief summary of information about the various membersof Family 1:

MSDateLocationCatalog NumberSoden
Cited inComment
1XIIBaselUniversity Library A. N. IV. 2Iηa 1 core; close to 1582SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven Gospels, Acts, Epistles complete.
118XIIIOxfordBodl. Libr. Auct. D. infr. 2. 17 Iηb1 coreSoden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven Gospels with lacunae; Matt. 1:1-6:2, Luke 13:35-14:20, 18:8-19:9, John 16:25-end from later hands. Many of the leaves are palimpsest, with 118 being the upper writing.
131XIV?RomeVatican Library Gr. 360Iη 1Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven Gospels, Acts, Epistles complete. Dated to the eleventh century by Birch. "This copy contains many itacisms, and corrections primâ manu" (Scrivener).
XVVeniceSan Marco Library 420 (Fondo Ant. 5) Iη1; pair with 209SQE13 Old and New Testaments complete. Thought by Lake, and earlier Rinck, to be copied from 209. This is probably not true (Burgon considers 205 and 209 to be descended from the same uncial ancestor), but the two are very close. 205 was copied for Cardinal Bessarion, probably by his librarian John Rhosen.
209XIVVeniceSan Marco Library 394 (Fondo Ant. 10) Iηb1; pair with 205 SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven New Testament complete (gospels, acts, epistles are XIV century; r is XV century). Like 205, once belonged to Cardinal Bessarion, who used it at the Council of Florence in 1429. Many marginal notes in vermillion from the first hand. Writing style resembles 1 (Scrivener).
1582948AthosVatopediu 949Iηa 1; close to 1SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven Gospels complete. Evidently written by the same scribe as 1739.
2193XIηaSoden, Merk, BoverLost.

Note: Von Soden also classified 22 as a member of the Lake Group;however, Wisse considers 22 to be the head of a different group. 872 is consideredby von Soden to be part of Iηb, but Wissefinds it to be Kx. Two additional Family 1 witnesses found by Wisse,884 and 2542, are only weak and partial membersof the family. These four witnesses are therefore omitted.

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript

von Soden: δ254.


Kirsopp Lake, Codex 1 of the Gospels and its Allies, Texts and Studies,volume vii, Cambridge, 1902, collates 1 with 118, 131, and 209.

Sample Plates:
Aland & Aland (1 plate)

Editions which cite:
Cited in NA26 and NA27 for the Gospels (usuallyas part of f1)
Cited, along with 205, 209, 1582, and 2542, in SQE13.
Family 1 is cited in all the UBS editions.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover.

Other Works:
Harvard Theological Review, July 1923, offers an article byR. P. Blake and K. Lake on the Koridethi Codex and related manuscripts.
B. H. Streeter, The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins (MacMillan, 1924)devotes considerable space to the relations between the various"Cæsarean" witnesses.

Manuscript 1r

Augsburg, University Library Codex I. 1.4.1. Labelled 1 in all previouscatalogs, but now renumbered 2814 in the new Aland list. Soden'sΑν20.Contains the Apocalypse only. Twelfth century. Has the Andreas commentary.Noteworthy primarily as the single Greek manuscript used by Erasmusto prepare the Apocalypse of his 1516 New Testament. It now ends(as it did in 1516) with 22:16, δαδ,forcing Erasmus to compile the remaining verses by retranslating the Vulgate.Erasmus borrowed the manuscript from Reuchlin, but it was lost for many yearsuntil rediscovered in 1861 by Delitzsch. Hort said of it, "it is byno means... of the common sort. On the one hand it has many individualismsand readings with small and evidently unimportant attestation: on the other ithas a large and good ancient element." Hort associates it with 38 [=2020].Other scholars have not placed it so high, however; the text (which often cannotbe distinguished from the commentary) seems to be fairly typical of the Andreasmanuscripts. Hodges and Farstad, following Schmid, place it in their"Me" group, a subset of the Andreas text containingsuch manuscripts as 181, 598, 2026, 2028, 2029, 2031, 2033, 2038, 2044,2052, 2054, 2056, 2057, 2059, 2060, 2065, 2068, 2069, 2081, 2083, 2186,2286, and 2302.

Manuscript 2ap

Basel, University Library A. N. IV.4. Labelled 2 in all previouscatalogs, but now renumbered 2815 in the new Aland list. Soden'sα253.Contains the Acts and Epistles complete. Generally dated tothe twelfth century, although Scrivener and Burgon list XIII/XIV.Classified as Ib1 by von Soden, but in Paul (the onlysection in which Von Soden cites it), this group (which includessuch manuscripts as 206, 429, 522, and 1891) is mostly Byzantine.That 2 is mostly Byzantine is confirmed by the Alands, who place themanuscript in Category V. Scrivenernotes that it has "short introductions to the books," butthese have no more critical value than those found in any othermanuscript. Thus the only real interest in 2 is historical; it isthe manuscript Erasmus used as the primary basis for his 1516 editionof the Acts and Epistles. (This, at least, is reported by mostexperts; Gary S. Dykes, however, claims that the TextusReceptus does not contain any of 2's distinctive readings.)Scrivener quotes Hoskier to the effect that his (Erasmus's) bindercut off significant portions of the margin.

Manuscript 4e

Paris, National Library Greek 84. Soden'sε371.Contains the Gospels with minor mutilations (Matt. 2:9-20, John 1:49-3:11).Generally dated to the thirteenth century, although Scrivener andBurgon list the twelfth. Classified as I' by von Soden,but this group (containing among others P Q RΓ 047 064074 079 090 0106 0116 0130 0131 and a number of undistinguishedminuscules) is amorphous; most of its members are heavily if notpurely Byzantine. That 4 is mostly Byzantine seems to be confirmedby Wisse; who classifies it as Kmix/Kx/Kx.(The Alands do not assign 4 to a Category;this often means that themanuscript is heavily but not quite purely Byzantine.)In the past, Mill considered 4 to have some relationship to theLatin versions and the Complutensian Polyglot; this may, however,be simply an indication that it agreed with the Byzantine textwhere the latter differs from the Textus Receptus.The manuscript was included in the editions of Stephanus asγ'. It isdescribed as "clumsily written" and has extensive lectionaryapparatus.

Manuscript 5

Paris, National Library Greek 106. Soden'sδ453.Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles complete. Usually datedto the thirteenth century; Scrivener gives twelfth century or later.In the Gospels, Soden lists it as Ak; other members of thisgroup include 15, 32, 53, 169, 225, 269, 292, 297, 416, 431, 448,470, 490, 496, 499, 534, 546, 558, 573, 715, 752, 760, 860, 902,946, 968, 976, 987, 1011, 1015, 1058, 1091, 1163, 1167, 1171,1211, 1227, 1291, 1299, 1321, 1439, 1481, 1484, 1498, 1566, 1800,2142, and 2176 -- an undistinguished group of manuscripts whichWisse generally classifies with Kx or its related groups(Wisse classifies 5 itself as Mix/Kmix/1519; seven otherAk manuscripts also go with 1519, butmany of the other manuscripts go with 1167 or have unique texts). That5 is largely Byzantine is confirmed by the Alands, who in theGospels place it in Category V.Outside the gospels, 5 is much more interesting. The Alands promote itto Category III, and Von Soden placesit in Ia2 (along with such manuscripts as 467 489 623927 1827 1838 1873 2143). Some support for this is offered by Richards,as 623 is 5's closestrelative in his tests of the Johannine Epistles(so close that they might almost be sisters). The kinship of 5 with489 927 1827 2143, however, is not notable in Richards's lists; 5 agrees with all ofthese in the 60% range, which is fairly typical of its agreementwith Byzantine manuscripts. Richards classifies 5 and 623 as membersof his Group A3 (family 1739); even by his numbers, however,they are weak members, and should be discarded. Wachtel classified 5as a distinctly non-Byzantine (40+) manuscript, but withoutdistinguishing its kinship. Scrivenernotes that it is "carefully written and full of flourishes."Colossians precedes Philippians.The manuscript was included in the editions of Stephanus asδ'. It is cited in NA28 for the Catholic Epistles,but was not cited in earlier Nestle editions.

Manuscript 6

Location/Catalog Number

Paris. Catalog number: Bibl. Nat. Gr. 112.


6 contains the entire New Testament except the Apocalypse. It is writtenon parchment, one column per page.


Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century. Scrivener writes of it,"This exquisite manuscript is written in characters so small that somepages require a glass to read them."

Description and Text-type

The quality of 6 varies in the various parts of the New Testament. Inthe Gospels it appears to by Byzantine (belonging to familyΠ; Wisse specifies the subgroup Π6). In Actsit is also primarily Byzantine.

The situation changes in Paul and the Catholic Epistles. 6 still possessesmany readings characteristic of the late phases of the Byzantine text,but it also has many distinct readings, many of which it shares with1739. Noteworthy among these are:

It will be observed that 6 shares all of these readings with 1739 -- and does notconsistently agree with anything else. Thispattern continues elsewhere; where 6 is non-Byzantine, it agrees with 1739over 90% of the time. (The connection of 1739 and 6 has been known almost sincethe discovery of the former, and recently was reaffirmed by Birdsall.)

6 also has a peculiar affinity with 424**; although these manuscriptsactually have fewer special agreements with each other than with 1739,this is because they are more Byzantine than 1739. 6 and 424** seem toform their own subgroup within family 1739 (note, e.g., their unique readingευωχιαις in Jude 12).

Von Soden lists 6 as Ik(family Π) in the Gospels and asH in the Acts and Epistles. Wisse's classification as Π6 in Luke makes it a partof a subgroup of Πb also containing 515 and 1310. Alandand Aland list 6 as Category V in the Gospelsand Acts and Category IIIin Paul and the Catholics.

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript

von Soden: δ356.Tischendorf: 6e; 6a; 6p.Cited in Stephanus as ε'

J.N. Birdsall, A Study of MS. 1739 and its Relationship to MSS.6, 424, 1908, and M (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 1959)


Sample Plates:

Editions which cite:
Cited frequently in NA26 and NA27.
Cited in UBS4 for Paul.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover.

Other Works:

Manuscript 7e

Paris, National Library Greek 71. Soden'sε287.Contains the Gospels compete. Generally dated to the twelfth century;Scrivener quotes the eleventh. Classified asIφbby von Soden; other members of this group include115 179 267 659 827 and parts of 185 1082 1391 1402 1606. It is associatedwith Family 1424 (IΦa).Wisse classified 7 as "Cluster 7." This group contains 7,267 (Soden: Iφb),1651 (Soden: Kx), and1654 (Soden: Iα).Wisse describes the group as "close to Kx in Luke 1 and 10, but...quite distinct in Luke 20." The Alands do not assign 7 to aCategory; this is not inconsistent with Wisse'sclassification of the manuscript as often but not universally close to Kx.Physically, Scrivener describes 7 as having a "very full [lectionary apparatus]"and a metrical paraphrase. It is said to be "[i]n style not unlike Cod. 4,but neater." It is Stephanus's ς'.

Manuscript 13 and Family 13

Location/Catalog Number

Paris. Catalog number: Bibl. Natl. Gr. 50.


13 contains the Gospels with lacunae: lacking Matthew 1:1-2:20(two leaves lost), 26:33-52 (one leaf), 27:26-28:9 (two leaves),Mark 1:20-45 (one leaf), John 16:19-17:11 (one leaf), 21:2-end.It is written on parchment, two columns per page.


Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century. Scrivener says of itsappearance simply "it is not correctly written." Griesbach calledit "inelegant," and Ferrer/Abbott admit that there are numerousorthographic errors (though not exceptionally numerous). They say that the number of itacismsis especially noteworthy (the introduction, p. xii, counts 1523!). On page xiii,they add that the scribe "was somewhat prone to the omission of words,from carelessnes, sometimes even a part of a word being dropped...."

Description and Text-type

It was W. H. Ferrar who first brought widespread attention to 13. In aposthumous work published by T. K. Abbott in 1877, he pointed out therelationship between 13, 69, 124, and 346. For this reason, the groupFamily 13 (f13) is often called the Ferrar Group (symbolizedφ; von Soden calls thegroup Iι).

The most obvious characteristic of the Ferrar Group is that these manuscriptsplace John 7:53-8:11 after Luke 21:38.

Since the time of Ferrar, many more manuscripts have been added to theFerrar Group. The list as given in Nestle-Aland consists of 13,69, 124, 174, 230, 346,543,788, 826, 828, 983, 1689, and 1709. Von Soden broke the groupup into three subgroups, the a subgroup containing 983 and 1689; the b subgroupconsisting of 69, (124), 174, and 788; and the c subgroup containing 13, 230,346, 543, 826, and 828.

The Lakes offered a similar scheme (with slightly different nomenclature,essentially reversing the names of the a and c groups). In Colwell's opinion,this means that Family 13is not a true "family"; it is a "tribe" within which theLakes' Group a is a family. The Lakes' groups are as follows:

Wisse makes various adjustments to von Soden'slist, associating 174 and 230 with the uncialΛ rather than withFamily 13, describing 983 as "weak" in Luke 1, and listing 124 as"weak" in all chapters profiled. Wisse denies the existence ofsubgroups (p. 106 -- although we should note that conclusions based on justthree chapters don't prove much), and claims that either543 or 828 can represent the group as a whole. The studies of Geerlings, and theunpublished work of Geoffrey Farthing, also indicate that 826 stands near thecenter of the group.

It is widely believed that the Ferrar group is derived from a lost uncialancestor once located in southern Italy or Sicily (possibly Calabria; see, e.g., thenotes on 124, 174, and 346).

In the decades after the Ferrar Group was discovered, it was found to havecertain textual affinities with the Lake Group, the Koridethi Codex, anda handful of other minuscules. In 1924, B. H. Streeter suggested that thetwo groups, plus the Koridethi Codex, the minuscules 28, 565, and 700,and the Armenian and Georgian versions, were the remnants of a"Cæsarean" text-type.

In the following decades, the "Cæsarean" type was furthersubdivided. Ayuso, for instance, split it into a "pre-Cæsarean"group, containing P45 W (Mark) f1 f13 28,and the "Cæsarean" text proper, consisting of Θ 565 700 OrigenEusebius and the early forms of the Armenian, Georgian, and Syriac versions.

This was, in fact, the first step toward what appears to be anunraveling of the "Cæsarean" text. Hurtado has shown,for instance, that P45 and W are not as close to the other"Cæsarean" witnesses as Streeter and Kenyon claimed.(It should be noted, however, that Hurtado at no point addressesStreeter's definition of the "Cæsarean" text;only his own. For a comparison of the non-Byzantine readings of Family13 with those of other "Cæsarean" witnesses, see the item on1eap and Family 1.)

For whatever value the information may have, Aland and Aland (who are notenthusiastic about the "Cæsarean" text) rate 13 (and mostof the other members of its type) as Category III.The classifications of von Soden and Wisse have, of course, already been covered.

The following offers a brief summary of information about the various membersof Family 13:

MSDateLocationCatalog NumberSoden
Cited inComment
13XIIIParisNat. Libr. 50Iιc13aSQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-GreevenGospels with several lacunae. Said to be "not correctly written."
69XVLeicesterRecords Office 6 DIιb13bSQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-GreevenNew Testament with lacunae. Lacks Matt. 1:1-18:15. Rapidly and poorly written on bad materials. See separate entry
124XIViennaAustrian Nat. Libr. Theol. Gr. 188Iιbweak 13 bSoden, Merk, Bover, Huck-GreevenGospels. Missing Like 23:31-24:28. Written on parchment, one column per page. Ferrer/Abbott considers it to be more carefully written than the other manuscripts of the family they studied (p. xvii). Scrivener reports, "The manuscript was written in Calabria, where it belonged to a certain Leo, and was brought to Vienna probably in 1564."
1741052RomeVatican Libr. Gr. 2002Iιb Λ Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-GreevenGospels with several lacunae, including John 8:47-end. Written by a monk named Constantine, and associated with "Georgilas dux Calabriae."
2301013?EscorialGr. 328 (Y. III. 5)Iιc Λ Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-GreevenGospels complete, written by a monk/priest named Luke (who miscalculated or miswrote the indiction)
346XIIMilanAmbrosian Libr. S. 23 supIιc13 corea SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-GreevenGospels. Missing John 3:26-7:52. Bought in 1606 in Gallipoli. That is not, note, Gallipoli in Turkey, the site of the World War I battle, but the one in Apulia in Italy. Dr. Ceriani of the Ambrosian Library, who of course had much occasion to examine the volume, thought it was written in Calabria. It is written in a single column of 13 lines per page; some of the writing is badly faded. Ferrer and Abbott, p. xv, report that it shares very many of the scribal peculiarities of 13. It has a peculiar tendency to split compound verbs into a preposition and a simple verb.
543 XIIAnn ArborUniv. of Mich. MS. 13Iιc13 corea SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-GreevenGospels with several lacunae. Scrivener's 556
788XIAthensNat. Libr. 74Iιb13 coreb SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-GreevenGospels. Missing John 21:20-end
826XIIGrottaferratadella badia Libr. A a 3 Iιc13 coreaSoden, Merk, Bover, Huck-GreevenGospels complete. "A beautiful codex: written probably at Rhegium" (Scrivener)
828XIIGrottaferratadella badia Libr. A a 5 Iιc13aSoden, Merk, Bover, Huck-GreevenGospels complete
983XIIAthosEsphigmenu 31Iιa13c SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-GreevenGospels. Missing John 11:34-19:9
16891200?IιaSoden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven Gospels (complete?). Lost.
Sample plate in Edward Maunde Thompson,An Introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography (plate 73).
1709XIITiranaStaatsarchiv Koder-Trapp 15 fol. 141-194Kx (John only)

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript

von Soden: ε368.


W. H. Ferrar and T. K Abbott, Collation of Four Important Manuscriptsof the Gospels by the late William Hugh Ferrar, 1877, collated 13, 69, 124,and 346, establishing the Ferrar Group.

Sample Plates:
Aland & Aland (1 plate)

Editions which cite:
Family 13 is cited in NA26 and NA27 for the Gospels
Cited, along with 69, 346, 543, 788, and 983, in SQE13.
Family 13 is cited in all the UBS editions.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover.

Other Works:
B. H. Streeter, The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins (MacMillan, 1924)devotes considerable space to the relations between the various"Cæsarean" witnesses.
Kirsopp Lake & Silva Lake, Family 13 (The Ferrar Group): The Text Accordingto Mark, Studies & Documents 11, 1941
Jacob Geerlings, Family 13 -- The Ferrar Group: The Text According to Matthew,Studies & Documents 19, 1961
Jacob Geerlings, Family 13 -- The Ferrar Group: The Text According to Luke,Studies & Documents 20, 1961
Jacob Geerlings, Family 13 -- The Ferrar Group: The Text According to John,Studies & Documents 21, 1962(It should be noted that the Geerlings volumes suffer from significant methodologicalproblems.)
E. C. Colwell, "Genealogical Method: Its Achievements and its Limitations,"1947, reprinted in Studies in Methodology in Textual Criticism of the NewTestament, New Testament Tools and Studies IX, 1969, summarizes an attempt toapply Quentin's "Rule of Iron" to Family 13.
E. C. Colwell, "Method in Grouping New Testament Manuscripts,"1958, reprinted in Studies in Methodology in Textual Criticism of the NewTestament, New Testament Tools and Studies IX, 1969, illustrates thevarious sorts of textual groupings based on Family 13 among others.
Larry W. Hurtado, Text-Critical Methodology and the Pre-CaesareanText: Codex W in the Gospel of Mark, Studies and Documents 43, 1981

Manuscript 16

Paris, National Library Greek 54. Soden'sε449.Contains the Gospels with minor mutilations (Mark 16:6-20 arelost and the manuscript was "never quite finished" -- hardlysurprising given the complexity of the copying process, as we will seebelow. The Ammonian Sections, for instance, are supplied only inMatthew and Mark, though the lectionary apparatus extends farther). It hasa Latin parallel, but this is much less complete than the Greek -- the Latincolumn is only about two-thirds of the width of the Greek, and they are notprinted in sense lines or synchronized; the Latin, which seems to be basedon the Vulgate but with many differences, lacks much of the second half of Markand almost all of Luke and John.Dated by all authorities to the fourteenth century. Classified asIβb by von Soden;other members of this group include 1216 1579 1588. Von Sodenconsidered this group to be weaker thanIαb(348 477 1279), but in fact both groups are largely Byzantine.Wisse, in evaluating 16, assigns it to its own group. Of this"Group 16" he remarks, "This group consists mainlyof MSS. classified by von Soden as the weak group ofIβ.However, the group is not simply a weakened form of Gr. 1216[=152 184 348 477 513(part) 555 752 829 977 1216 1243 12791579 2174 2726], though it stands closer to Kx. Ifthere is a relationship between Grs 16 and 1216 in Luke, it is a ratherdistant one." Other members of Group 16 include 119 217 330491 578(part) 693 1528 (which Wisse pairs with 16) 1588.
We can now go well beyond pairing 1528 and 16. James Dowden pointsout Kathleen Maxwell's 2014 book on this manuscript, Between Constantinople and Rome, which offers proof that 16 is a copy of 1528.I have not seen this (very expensive) book, but the strongest singleargument is that there are marginal markingsin 1528 corresponding to where spaces were left for illustrations in 16.Formally, this means that 16 should be renumbered as 1528abs,but given the elaborate work that went into it, I doubt this will happen.
Despite Wisse's comments, Group 16 is much more Byzantine thananything else, though the Alands do not place 16 in anyCategory.Much more interesting than 16's actual text is the appearance of thetext. Scrivener calls it "gorgeous and 'right royal,'" andthe reason is not hard to see, for the manuscript is written in fourcolours (as well as being illustrated). Narrative is copied in vermillion;the words of Jesus and of angels, along with the genealogy of Jesus, arein crimson; blue is used for Old Testament quotations and for the speechesof those who might be regarded as sympathetic to Christianity: the disciples,Mary, Zechariah, Elizabeth, Simeon, John the Baptist; the words of evildoers(Pharisees, Judas, the Devil; also the mob) are in black, as are the words ofthe centurion and the shepherds (it is possible that these are by mistake).Gregory believes that an Armenian had a hand in its preparation, as it hasArmenian as well as Greek quire numbers. The quires consist of five ratherthan four leaves. The manuscript was once owned by the Medicis.

Manuscript 18

Paris, National Library Greek 47. Soden'sδ411;Tischendorf/Scrivener 18e, 113a,132p, 51r.Contains the New Testament complete. Dated by a colophonto 1364. Textually it is not noteworthy; the Alands list itas Category V (Byzantine)throughout. This agrees with Von Soden, who lists it asKr, and Wisse, who also describes it as Krin Luke. Wachtel lists it as Kr in the Catholics.In the Apocalypse, Schmid places it in the dominant or "a"group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. In Merk's apparatus,it is part of the K1 group, most closely associatedwith 1835 2039 2138 2200. According to Scrivener, the manuscripthas two synaxaria between the Pauline Epistleas andApocalypse, and otherwise full lectionary equipment, but (typicallyof Kr manuscripts) does not have the Eusebianapparatus. It was written at Constantinople.

Manuscript 21

Paris, National Library Greek 68. Soden'sε286.Contains the Gospels with slight mutilations.Dated paleographically to the twelfth century (so Aland;Scrivener says tenth). Classified asIαby Von Soden -- that is, he regarded it as a mainstream"Western" or "Cæsarean" witness.More recent studies have not supported this classification. Wissefinds the manuscript to be Kx, and the Alandsaffirm this by placing 21 in CategoryV. The manuscript has pictures and most of the usualmarginalia; the synaxarion was added by a later hand.

Manuscript 22

Paris, National Library Greek 72. Soden'sε288.Contains the Gospels with some mutilations (lacking Matt. 1:1-2:24:20-5:25, John 14:22-16:27) and dislocated leaves.Dated paleographically to the twelfth century (so Aland, Gregory,Von Soden; Scrivener and Scholz preferred the eleventh). Classified asIηb,by Von Soden. Iηis what we now refer to as family 1;the b group contains the poorer witnesses to the type (118 131 209 872).This view has received partial -- but only partial -- supportfrom later scholars; Sanders (who published a "New Collationof Codex 22" in Journal of Biblical Studies xxxiii, p. 91)noted that Von Soden's collation is inaccurate, but in generalsupported the classification, and Streeter, whilehe believed 22 to be "Cæsarean," was not certainit was part of Family 1. The manuscript has a comment about theauthenticity of Mark 16:9-20; it is somewhat similar to, butdistinctly shorter than, that in 1. The Alands do not place 22 in anyCategory, implying that theydo not regard it as purely Byzantine but also do not regard itas a member of Family 1 or any other noteworthy type. Wisse'sconclusion is more interesting; he makes it a core member ofthe b subgroup of Group 22. Wisse does not analyse the natureof Group 22, but lists 660, 697, 791, 924, 1005, 1278,1365, 2372, and 2670 (part) as members of 22a while listing22, 134, 149, 351 (part), 1192, and 1210 as members of 22b. He alsolists some seemingly related groupings. Describing 22 itself,Scrivener reports that it is a "beautiful copy, singularly freefrom itacisms and errors from homoeoteleuton, and verycarefully accentuated, with slight illuminated headings to thegospels." The Eusebian apparatus is incomplete, andit lacks lectionary equipment.

Manuscript 27

Paris, National Library Greek 115. Soden'sε1023.Contains the Gospels with slight mutilations; in addition,the text has been lost from John 18:3, being replacedby a supplement (on paper) which Scrivener dates to thefourteenth century. The main run of the text is dated paleographicallyto the tenth century (so Gregory and Aland;Scrivener says the eleventh). Classified by von Soden asIφr;this is part of the amorphous group containing also Family1424(Iφa)as well as the groups headed by 7 and1010.This classification is largely affirmed by Wisse, who lists 27 as a memberof M27 (Wisse lists two basic M groups, M27 and M1386, along with a numberof subgroups). Wisse lists M, 27, 71, 248 (part), 447 (part), 518, 569,692, 750, 830 (part), 1914 (part), 1032 (part), 1170, 1222, 1228 (part),1413, 1415, 1458, 1626, 1663 (part), and 2705 as members of M27. (Note thatfew of the members of Soden's otherIφ groupsgo here; Von Soden's Iφr,corresponding to Wisse's M groups, stands distinct).It should be noted that the M groups are still Byzantine; the Alands place27 in Category V.Physically, 27 has pictures and most of the usualmarginalia including the Eusebian apparatus; the lectionary tables wereadded later, and Scrivener reports that it has been heavily corrected.

Manuscript 28

Location/Catalog Number

Paris. Catalog number: Bibl. Nat. Gr. 379.


28 contains the gospels with lacunae (missing Matt. 7:19-9:22, 14:33-16:10, 26:70-27:48,Luke 20:19-22:46, John 12:40-13:1; 15:24-16:12, 18:16-28, 20:19-21:4, 21:19-end).John 19:11-20:20, 21:5-18 are from a later hand.


Dated paleographically to the eleventh century (the added leaves arefrom the fifteenth century). 28 is written on parchment,one column per page. Scrivener says it was "most carelessly written byan ignorant scribe;" Streeter too calls the writer "ill-educated."Hatch comments, "Words written continuously without separation; accentsand breathings; ruling with a sharp point, letters pendent; high and middle points,comma, colon (:), and interogation point; initials red; initials at the beginning ofbooks ornamented with red, blue, green, and brown...." It has a synaxarion,but the lectionary indications are from a later hand. The Eusebian apparatusappears original.

Description and Text-type

Von Soden classifies 28 as Iα -- i.e. among theprimary "Western/Cæsarean" witnesses. However, Alandand Aland remark that it is "CategoryIII in Mark only; elsewhereV." Wisse generally agrees; although he labels 28 "mixed"in Luke 1, he puts it with Kx in Luke 10 and 20.

There is little doubt that most of 28's non-Byzantine readings are inMark (there are a few in John); in my sample of 889 test readings for which 28 exists,only 150 are non-Byzantine, and 92 of these are in Mark.

But what is this relatively non-Byzantine text of Mark? Streeter proposedthat it was "Cæsarean;" Ayuso further classified it as"pre-Cæsarean" (along with P45 W (Mark) f1f13). The "Cæsarean;" text has, however, come undersevere attack in recent decades (though the crucial study, that of Hurtado,does not cite 28). Therefore it is perhaps useful to cite the agreementrates of 28 -- in both overall and non-Byzantine agreements -- for Mark(the data set is the same as that cited above. In Mark, 28 exists for 211of the readings).


I would draw attention particularly to all three rates of agreement with f13,and also to the rate of near-singular agreements with 565. Whatever the type iscalled, there does appear to be kinship here. On the face of it, a common ancestral typebetween 23 and f13 seems nearly certain. Whether this was related toΘ, etc. is less clear,though the data does seem to lean that way.

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript

von Soden: ε168.


Kirsopp Lake & Silva Lake, Family 13 (The Ferrar Group): The Text Accordingto Mark, Studies & Documents 11, 1941 (Mark only)

Sample Plates:
Hatch (1 plate)

Editions which cite:
Cited in NA26 for all four gospels, but in NA27only for Mark.
Cited by Von Soden, Merk, and Bover for the gospels.

Other Works:
B. H. Streeter, The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins (MacMillan, 1924)devotes considerable space to the relations between the various"Cæsarean" witnesses (though 28 receives relatively littleattention).

Manuscript 33

Location/Catalog Number

Paris. Catalog number: Bibl. Nat. Gr. 14.


33 originally contained the entire New Testament except the Apocalypse(as well as the LXX prophets, not including Daniel).Mark 9:31-11:11, 13:11-14:60, Luke 21:38-23:26 have been lost. In addition,the manuscript has suffered severely from damp; Tregelles said that, of all themanuscripts he collated (presumably excluding palimpsests), it was the hardestto read. The damage is worst in Acts, where some readings must be determinedby reading the offprint on the facing page. In addition, Luke 13:7-19:44are on damaged leaves and contain significant lacunae. 33 is written on parchment,one column per page.


Dated paleographically to the ninth century (so Omont, Von Soden, Aland; Scrivenersuggests the eleventh, while Gregory thought the prophets and gospels to comefrom the ninth century and the rest from the tenth). Several scribes seemto have been involved; Von Soden suggests that one wrote the Prophets andGospels, another the Acts, Catholic Epistles, and Romans, and a third theremainder of Paul. Hatch supports this conclusion. The text supports thisopinion in part; the manuscript changes type dramatically between Romans and1 Corinthians. Hatch notes, "Words written continuously withoutseparation; accents and breathings; ruling with a sharp point; letters pendent;high, middle, and low points and comma; initials brown... O.T. quotationssometimes indicated; numbers and titles of chapters; no Ammonian sections orEusebian canons...." The Gospels have superscriptions and subscriptions;the Acts and Epistles have superscriptions but only occasional subscriptions and no στιχοι.

Description and Text-type

33 was christened "the queen of the cursives" in the nineteenthcentury. At that time, it was without doubt the most Alexandrian minusculetext of the New Testament. Today its title as "best minuscule"may perhaps have been usurped for individual sections (892 is perhaps slightlymore Alexandrian in the Gospels; 81 and 1175 rival it in Acts; in the Epistles,1739 is at least as good and more interesting). But overall there is nominuscule with such a good text over so many books.

In the Gospels, 33 is mostly Alexandrian, of a late type, with a heavyByzantine mixture (the extent of which varies from section to section).Wieland Willker, following a detailed analysis, is of the opinion thatit has most of the major Byzantine variants but few of the minor, whichhe believes means that it an ancestor started with an Alexandrian text butwas corrected very casually toward the Byzantine text (the corrector changingonly those readings he noticed on casual inspection to be incorrect). Thismatches my own unstatistical impression.

In Acts, it is Alexandrian, though with a significant mixture of Byzantinereadings. It appears closer to A than to ℵor B. It is very close to 2344; the two almost certainly have a common ancestor.One might almost suspect 33 of being the ancestor of 2344 if it weren't fortheir differences elsewhere.

In Paul the manuscript falls into two parts. Romans, which is not in thesame hand as the other books, is mostly Byzantine; here again, Davies believes it to be akin to2344. Elsewhere in Paul, 33 is purely Alexandrian, with almost no Byzantineinfluence. It is, in fact, the closest relative ofℵ, agreeing withthat manuscript even more than A does.

In the Catholics, 33 is again purely Alexandrian; here it aligns mostclosely with A. These two are the main representatives of the main phaseof the Alexandrian text, which also includes (in more dilute form) 81,436, Ψ, bo, etc.

Von Soden lists 33 as H. Wisse lists it as Group B ("weak in [chapter]1"). Aland and Aland list 33 as Category IIin the Gospels and Category I elsewhere.

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript

von Soden: δ48.Tischendorf: 33e; 13a;17p


Frequently collated in the nineteenth century (e.g. by Grisbach, Scholz,Tregelles); given the state of the manuscript, there is a real need for amodern collation using present-day resources.

Sample Plates:
Aland & Aland (1 page -- but this is of the ending of Romans, which is from the less valuable hand)
Hatch (1 page)
Facsmile in Scrivener

Editions which cite:
Cited in all critical editions since Von Soden, and frequently in Tischendorf.

Other Works:
M. Davies, The Text of the Pauline Epistles in MS. 2344 (Studies& Documents 38, 1968) briefly discusses the relationship of 33 with2344.

Manuscript 35

Paris, National Library Coislin Greek 199. Soden'sδ309;Tischendorf/Scrivener35e, 14a, 18p, 17r.Dated paleographically to the eleventh century.Contains the entire New Testament, without lacunae but withfairly heavy corrections. Von Soden classifies it as Kr in theGospels (based probably on the marginalia), and Wisse confirms thatit belongs to this group. Wisse places it (or, more specifically,the first hand) in subgroup 35 along with 141, 170, 204, 394, 402, 516c,521, 553, 660c, 758*, 769, 797, 928, 1250, 1482, 1487, 1493, 1559,1572, 1600, 1694*, 2204, 2261, 2554. (It is slightly peculiar to notethat Wisse attributes the Kr recension to the twelfthcentury while accepting the eleventh century date for 35.) In theActs and Epistles, Von Soden lists 35 as part to Ib2,though he cites it only in Paul (where the members of Ib2include 43 216 323 336 440 491 823 1149 1872 2298). This more orless corresponds to the judgement of the Alands, who do not placethe manuscript in a Category (whichusually implies a manuscript very strongly but not quite purelyByzantine). In the Apocalypse Von Soden places it in Ia3;Schmid places it in the "c" orComplutensian branch of the Byzantine text with manuscripts such as432 757 824 986 1075 1740 1957 2061 2352 (compare Merk's Kcgroup). Physically, like most Kr manuscripts, it hasextensive marginalia, including extensive lectionary equipment.

Manuscript 38

Paris, National Library Coislin Greek 200. Soden'sδ355;Tischendorf38e, 19a, 377p;Scrivener38e, 19a, 341p.Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century.Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles with lacunae (lacking Matt.14:15-15:30, 20:14-21:27, Mark 12:3-13:4). Von Soden classifies it asIk in the Gospels, but Wisse lists it as Kx(Cluster 1053 in chapters 1 and 20; other members of this groupinclude 31, 113(part), 298, 407(part), 435, 552(part), 1053, 1186(part),1288(part), 1578(part), 2141(part), and 2724(part)).The Alands have little to add to this; they do not place 38in a Category (which generallymeans that it is heavily but not purely Byzantine), but weare not told whether it is non-Byzantine in some areas orin all (Wachtel classifies it as 10-20% non-Byzantine in theCatholics, but tells us no more). In the Acts and Epistles,von Soden lists the manuscript as a member of Ia3(the largest and most amorphous of the I groups, consistinglargely of late Alexandrian witnesses with moderate to heavyByzantine overlay). In Paul, it is cited after 1319 2127256 263, implying that it may be a weak member of Family 2127(Family 1319; see the entry on 365). Inthe Acts and Catholic Epistles, it still is listed with 1319and 256; these manuscripts, however, have little if any valueoutside Paul. The manuscript has an interesting history; itwas written for the Byzantine Emperor Michael Paleologus(reigned 1259-1282), and was given to the French King Louis IX(St. Louis, reigned 1226-1270, who died of the plague whileon his way to lead what would be the Eighth Crusade). Scrivenercalls it "beautiful"; it is illustrated, but has onlylimited marginal equipment (Ammonian sections but no Eusebianapparatus or lectionary data).

Manuscript 42

Lost. Formerly Frankfurt on the Oder, Gymnasium MS. 17.α107;Tischendorf/Scrivener42a, 48p, 13r. A single leafof a lectionary is also bound in this manuscript; this isGregory l923;Tischendorf/Scrivener 287evl, 56apl.Dated paleographically to the eleventh century.Contained the Acts, Epistles, and Revelation with lacunae; Acts 2:3-34, 2 Pet. 1:1-2,1 Jo. 5:11-21, Rev. 18:3-13 were lost before the rest of the manuscript was catalogued.Acts 27:19-34 were a supplement fromanother hand. Von Soden classified 42 as Kc in theActs and Paul; K in the Catholic Epistles, and Io2 inthe Apocalypse. Schmid placed it in the in the main or "a"group of Apocalypse manuscripts -- the chief Byzantine group, headedby 046. Beyond this we cannot add much, since the manuscript islost; the Alands were obviously unable to assign it to aCategory. Scrivener describes it as"carelessly written, with some rare readings." Its textis said to resemble that of 51 and the Complutensian Polyglot;this appears to confirm Von Soden's classification in part, as51 is also a Kc manuscript.

Manuscript 43

Paris, Arsenal 8409, 840. Soden'sε107,α270;Tischendorf/Scrivener43e, 54a, 130p.Variously dated; Scrivener lists the whole as eleventh century,Soden lists the gospels as eleventh and the rest as twelfth;Aland lists both parts as twelfth century.Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles (in two volumes with slightlydifferent formats).Von Soden classifies it as Kx in the Gospels.Wisse concurs, specifying that it is part of Cluster 43(15, 43, 680, 1163, 1350, 1364, 1592, 2195(part), 2420, 2539) and pairs with 2420.The Alands do not explicitly concur, as they do not place the manuscript inany Category -- but this is probably based onthe text of the epistles, not the gospels. In the Acts and Epistles, von Sodenclassifies 43 as Ib (and cites it with Ib2 in Paul; themembers of this group, however, are not particularly distinguished).Wachtel lists it as having between 10% and 20% non-Byzantine readings in theCatholics. Scrivener reports that, in the Gospels, the Eusebian apparatusis from the first hand but the lectionary notes are later; he speculatesthat it was written at Ephesus.

Manuscript 59

Cambridge (England), Gonville and Caius College MS. 403.Von Soden's ε272.Gregory gave the date as XIII; Scrivener says XII;James lists it as "Cent. xii, xiii, finely written." Scrivener,while noting that Tischendorf considered it to contain a "textunotabili," says that it is carelessly written; he counts 81 instancesof homoioteleuton.Contains the Gospels complete, although the pages (according to James) aremisnumbered. The manuscript seems not to have been finished; although thefirst pages (with the prologue to Matthew) are missing, the first page appearsto have left a space for an illustration, and this was never supplied. (Illustrationsof Mark and Luke are in the text; that of John seems to have been removed.) Thereare 237 surviving pages (plus an added page); there are 23 lines per page. Thefirst surviving page was written in red ink. The manuscript appears to havehad an interesting history. James says that it was "Doubtless one of thebooks left by Robert Grosseteste to the Franciscans of Oxford," (Grossetestebeing the famous and controversial Bishop of Lincoln who died in 1253). Jamesbelieves that at least one of the comments in the margin was written by Grossetestehimself. James notes that "Throughout the book are headlines in Latin,and chapter numbers, of cent. xiii. There are also interlineations in a similar handin Latin." Thus the manuscript was probably copied in the West, and certainlycame to England at an early date. It was given to Cambridge by Thomas Hatcher in1567.
In addition to Grosseteste's marginal scribbling, there are several othermarginal addenda, some quite interesting -- e.g. on page 2 we find the Latin names"Ioram and Ioatham" added to Matthew's genealogy of Jesus. Rendel Harristhought that the writer of some of the interlinear comments also wrote commented ona Greek psalter in the Corpus Christi library. Scrivenerpublished a collation in 1893 in Adversaria Critica Sacra.
Von Soden classifies 59 as Kx, which Wisse amends slightly toKmix/Kx/Kx. The Alands do not classify it, implyingthat it is not purely Byzantine but clearly heavily influenced by the Byzantine text.It is perhaps not of great value to New Testamentscholars, but might well be worthy of more examination by church historians.

Manuscript 60

Cambridge, University Library Dd. IX. 69. Soden'sε1321,α1594; Tischendorf/Scrivener60e, 10r. Contains the Gospels and Apocalypse complete,though probably written separately (Scrivener reports that "[t]he Gospelsappear to have been written in the East, the Apocalypse in the West of Europe".)A colophon dates it to 1297, but this probably applies only to the Gospels; theApocalypse appears more recent. Von Soden classifies it as Kx in theGospels, but Wisse elaborates this to Cluster 1685, "consisting of MSS 60,1454, and 1685, [and] closely related to Cl 7 and Kx Cl 1084." Thus,although the manuscript is perhaps not purely Kx, it is stronglyByzantine, which the Alands support by classifying it as Category V.In the Apocalypse it is also Byzantine; Von Soden places it in Ia7,with manuscripts such as 432 2067; Schmid places it in the "c" orComplutensian branch of the Byzantine text with manuscripts such as35 432 757 824 986 1075 1740 1957 2061 2352 (compare Merk's Kcgroup). Physically, Scrivener reports that it is an elegant copy, thatit has lectionary apparatus (added later), and that it has the Ammonianbut not the Eusebian apparatus. In the Apocalypse, "[it] has a fewscholia from Arethas about it."

Manuscript 61

Dublin, Trinity College A 4.21. Soden'sδ603; Tischendorf/Scrivener61e, 34a, 40p, 92r.Contains the New Testament complete. Generally dated to the sixteenth century (thoughScrivener admits that a fifteenth century date is possible on paleographic grounds, andan early scholar by the name of A. Clarke suggested the thirteenth century. Someonenamed Martin who worked in the seventeenth century in fact suggested an eleventhcentury date. But these early dates are surely ruled out by the fact that it uses theLatin chapter numbering as well as the Greek).Its text has not attracted much interest; Von Soden classifies it as Kx,though Wisse did not profile itdue to its late date. The Alands place it in Category Vin the Gospels and Acts (reinforcing that it is at least Byzantine if not a memberof Kx); in the Epistles and the Apocalypse they raise it to Category III.That it is non-Byzantine in the Apocalypse is confirmed by Schmid (though Von Sodenlisted it as a Koine witness); it is close to 69 (though not,as Dobbin thought, a copy of that manuscript).
James Dowden, however, tells me that Roger Omanson's Ph.D. thesisplaces it in Group 1216 in Mark -- still Byzantine, but not Kx.
What is noteworthy about this manuscript, however, isnot its text (which is at best mildly interesting) but the historical use to whichit was put. 61 is the manuscript which was presented to Erasmus to force him toinclude the "three heavenly witnesses" passage (1 John 5:7-8) inhis third edition of the Textus Receptus. It is believed thatthe codex was written for this express purpose, and in some haste; at least threeand possibly four scribes were involved in the project (the gospels having quitelikely been written before Erasmus's edition was published, then theActs and Epistles added to confute him; the Apocalypse may be later still; a dateof around 1580 has been conjectured for it). Dobbin thought the Acts and Epistlesmight have been copied from 326, although the latter manuscript seems somewhatmore interesting than 61. It has also been supposed that the gospels were takenfrom 56, but as 56 is a Kr manuscript, it is possible that anothercopy of that text was used. The haste with which 61was written is perhaps evidenced by its lack of lectionary apparatus (though ithas the κεφαλαια andAmmonian/Eusebian apparatus) and by the number of later corrections it required.It has been said that the only page of the manuscript to be glazed is that containing1 John 5:7-8, but in fact the paper is glazed throughout; it is simply thatso many readers have turned directly to that passage that the wear and tearhas caused the glazing to be visible on that page as on no other.

Manuscript 66

Cambridge, Trinity College O.viii.3. Soden's ε519.Contains the Gospels complete. Estimates of its date vary widely; Scrivener offersthe twelfth century, the Alands the fourteenth, von Soden the fifteenth. M. R. Jamesin his catalog of the Trinity manuscripts of class O says "Cent. xv. late, with neatbut not good pictures and ornaments. The hand is very good."Textually, Von Soden classifies it as Kr, and Wisse concursthough he notes that it has a "large surplus."The Alands, unsurprisingly, place it in Category V.It is unusual for a Kr manuscript in that it has the Ammonian andEusebian apparatus. It contains ten blank pages, on five consecutive leaves(for some additional material which was not supplied?). They follow the Eusebiantables. Scrivener believesthat two later hands have worked on it, the earlier making some correctionsin the text while the later added some scholia in the margin. Frankly it seemsa thoroughly unexceptional manuscript.

Manuscript 69

Location/Catalog Number

Leicester. Catalog number: Town Museum Cod. 6 D 32/1


69 contains the entire New Testament with many lacunae. Missing Matt. 1:1-18:15,Acts 10:45-14:17 (the manuscript skips from Acts 10:45 to 14:17 without break;it would appear the scribe did not realize there was a defect in his exemplarhere!), Jude 7-25, Rev. 19:10-22:21; Rev. 18:7-19:10 are fragmentary. The manuscriptalso contains five pages of assorted information about church history anddoctrine.


Dated paleographically to the fifteenth century, probably to the period1465-1472, since it was presented to George Neville, Archbishop of York,England during those years. The scribe is known from his other writingsto have been Emmanuel, a former resident of Constantinople who spent thesecond half of the fifteenth century in England copying Biblical andclassical texts. His writing style is absolutely peculiar; epsilons closelyresemble alphas, and accents are often placed over consonants rather thanvowels. Acute and grave accents are confused and hard to distinguish.Errors are also common; Scrivener counted 74 omissions of various sorts,and many words interrupted in the middle. The scribe also used theNomina Sacra in peculiar ways;Ιησους is consistentlyspelled out until John 21:15, when contractions begin to be used sporadically.The manuscript appears to have been written with a reed. Scrivener alsoremarks, "Though none of the ordinary divisions into sections, and scarcelyany liturgical marks, occur throughout, there is evidently a close connectionbetween Cod. 69 and the church service books, as well in the interpolationsof proper names, particles of time, or whole passages (e.g. Luke xxii. 43, 44placed after Matt. xxvi.39) which are common to both...." Ferrer/Abbottamplifies: "besides [a strange list of sections], there is no liturgicalmatter whatever, no division into sections, or Eusebian canons, or notes aboutlessons, except a marginal mark or two, and a few words, which are often illegible,scribbled at the foot of the first page of each leaf."

Ferrer/Abbott adds, "Many of the changes met with in this MS. arise frominversion of order, the substitution of simple for compound words, and viceversâ. 'A corrector's hand,' adds Dr. Scrivener, 'has been busy throughoutthis copy, whom Dr. Dobbin considers to have been the original scribe. I havedeemed the changes to be secundâ manu, but nearly as old as the first."

A number of marginal notes ("too many," Scrivener acidly remarks)are written in the hand of William Chark, who owned the manuscript probably inthe late sixteenth century.

69 is written on a mix of paper and parchment. Abbott/Ferrer, probablybased on Scrivener, speculate that the scribe had a limited supply of parchmentand estimated how much paper would have to be added to allow enough material fora whole codex. As a result, the quires are usually of five sheetsrather than four, with two parchment and three paper sheets per quire, theparchment leaves being on the outside of the quire. The paper is very poor --so bad that one side of four of the paper leaves had to be left blank. The manuscripthas one column per page. The books seem to have originally been in the orderPaul (with Hebrews last), non-Biblical materials, Acts, Catholic Epistles,Apocalypse, Gospels.

Description and Text-type

The text of 69 varies significantly. In the Gospels it was identified byFerrar with Family 13, and this has been affirmed by everyone since (Wisseclassifies it as 13, and von Soden put it in Iib). However, somehave thought it one of the best Family 13 manuscripts, and others countit one of the poorer. Probably the peculiar readings generated by scribalerrors had something to do with this. Within the Ferrar group, it has beenplaced in the "b" group (along with 174 and 788) by scholarsfrom von Soden and Lake to Colwell. The Alands, interestingly, classify69 as Category V (Byzantine) -- despite the fact that its profile(1341 631/2 222 50s) seemsto be fairly typical for the Ferrar Group (e.g. 13 is1501 711/2 312 54s; 346is 1721 821/2 242 53s).

In the Acts even Scrivener concedes the text to be "less valuable."Von Soden classes it as Ia3, but places it among the lower membersof the group. The Alands classify it as Category V.

It is generally agreed that 69 and 462 are closely akin in the PaulineEpistles. Their combined text is, however, only slightly removed from theByzantine. The Alands classify 69 as Category III in Paul (they do notcategorize 462). Von Soden places 69 and 462 next to each other in Ia3.Davies links 462 (and so by implication 69) with 330,436, and 2344; her technique, however, makes theseresults questionable. There is as yet no clear evidence that 69 and 462should go with any of the stronger members of the Ia3 group,such as Family 330 or 365 and Family2127.

In the Catholics the Alands again classify 69 as Category V, and vonSoden again classifies it as Ia3. Wachtel lists it as having10-20% non-Byzantine readings. Richards classifies it as Mw,which makes it a mixed manuscript that does not seem to have any closerelatives. This seems to conform with the results of Wachtel.

In the Apocalypse, the Alands classify 69 as Category V.Von Soden lists it as I', grouping it with 61 and 046.

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript

von Soden: δ505. Tischendorf: 31a, 37p, 14r


W. H. Ferrar and T. K Abbott, Collation of Four Important Manuscriptsof the Gospels by the late William Hugh Ferrar, 1877, collates 13, 69, 124,and 346 in the Gospels. Much of the material in the introduction, and the collationare based on Scrivener's collation.
F. H. A. Scrivener, An Exact Transcription of Codex Augienses, 1859,collates and discusses the manuscript.

Sample Plates:
Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible (1 page)

Editions which cite:
Cited in SQE13 where it differs from Family 13 and the Majority Text.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover.

Other Works:"Origin of the Leicester Codex of theNew Testament, 1887.
M. R. James, "The Scribe of the Leicester Codex," Journalof Theological Studies, v (1903/4).

Manuscript 71

London, Lambeth 528. Soden'sε253. Scrivener's gof the Gospels.Contains the Gospels complete. Generally dated to the twelfth century;Scrivener offers the exact date 1100 C.E..Classified by Von Soden as Iφr,along with M 27(part) 692(part) 1194;Iφ as a whole iswhat Streeter calls Family 1424. Wisse partly corroborates Von Soden, making 71a core member of the M27 group (while pointing out that M is not really a goodexample of the M type). Other members of M27 include M 27 71 248(part) 447(part)518(part) 569 692 750 830(part) 1014(part) 1032(part) 1170 1222 1228(part)1413 1415 1458 1626 1663(part) 2705. The Alands give this their usual half-heartedendorsement by refusing to place 71 in a Category;this generally means that the manuscript belongs to the Byzantine text but not one of themainstream Byzantine groups. Scrivener reports that "This elegant copy, whichonce belonged to an Archbishop of Ephesus, was brought to England in 1675 by PhilipTraheron, English Chaplain at Smyrna." It has a lectionary apparatus, and issaid to have "many" later corrections. Scrivener also notes that "thiscopy presents a text full of interest, and much superior to that of the mass ofmanuscripts of its age." Mill thought its text similar to that of 29, thoughWisse's analysis does not confirm this in Luke.

Manuscript 81

Location/Catalog Number

57 folios are in the British Library in London (Catalog number: Add.20003); 225 folios are in Alexandria (Patriarchal Library MS. 59). TheBritish Museum portions were taken from Egypt, where Tischendorf"discovered" the manuscript.


81 contains the Acts and Epistles. Acts 4:8-7:17, 17:28-23:9 havebeen lost. It is written on parchment, one column per page.


Dated by its colophon to April 20, 1044, and written by a scribe named John.

Description and Text-type

81 has been called "the best minuscule witness to Acts." Itis consistently Alexandrian (although with some Byzantine corruptions).In Paul, its text seems to fall somewhere between the early and late formsof the Alexandrian text, and may represent a transitional phase in theevolution of that text (most late Alexandrian witnesses -- e.g. 436, 1175,family 2127, 2464 -- seem to be closer to 81 than they are to each other).In the Catholics it is again Alexandrian with some Byzantine mixture; itseems to be a slightly less pure form of the A/33 text.

Von Soden lists 81 as H. Aland and Aland describe it as "at leastCategory II."

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript

von Soden: α162. Tischendorf: 61a; also loti andpscr



Sample Plates:

Editions which cite:
Cited for the Acts and Epistles by all editions since Von Soden.

Other Works:

Manuscript 82

Paris, National Library Gr. 237. Soden's O1;Tischendorf/Scrivener 10a, 12p, 2r.Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse complete. Universallydated to the tenth century.Includes a commentary (listed by Von Soden as that of Oecumenius, i.e. thepseudo-Oecumenius;Scrivener describes it simply as "scholia and other matter.")Von Soden did not classify it beyond listing it among the Oecumeniusmanuscripts, but Scrivener believed that "its value in theApocalypse is considerable." This has not been confirmed byfurther research; Schmid places it in the main or "a"group of Apocalypse manuscripts -- the chief Byzantine group, headedby 046. This is confirmed by the Alands, who place 82 inCategory V in all sections. Scrivener describes82 as "neatly written," and notes that it contains non-Biblicalmatter (including the treatise of Dorotheus of Tyre mentioned in theentry on 177). The manuscript was included in the editions of Stephanus asιε'.

Manuscript 83

Munich, Bavarian State Library Gr. 518.Soden's ε1218;Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by both Scrivener and Aland tothe eleventh century; Von Soden prefers the twelfth. Von Sodenclassifies it as Kr, and Wisse concurs, listing it asa perfect member of the type. The Alands list it asCategory V (Byzantine). Scrivener describesit as "beautifully written." It has all the marginaliaexpected of a Kr manuscript, even though (or perhapsbecause) it is one of the earliest examples of this type.

Manuscript 91

Paris, National Library Gr. 219. Von Soden's O14;Tischendorf/Scrivener 12a, 16p, 4r.Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse complete, with commentary.Dated paleographically to the eleventh century.The commentary on the Acts and Epistles is that of the (pseudo-)Oecumenius;that on the Apocalypse is that of Arethas. As an Oecumenius manuscript,Von Soden does not really classify the text (beyond listing it asKo in the Apocalyse), but the Alands do not list it asCategory. This implies that it islargely but not quite purely Byzantine. In the Apocalypse,Schmid places it in the dominant or "a"group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. Scrivener describesit as "neat," with lectionary tables but no apparatus.It once belonged to the Medicis.

Manuscript 93

Paris, National Library Coislin Gr. 205.Von Soden's α51;Tischendorf/Scrivener 17a, 21p, 19r.Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse with lacunae (lacking1 Cor. 16:17-2 Cor. 1:7; Heb. 13:15-25; Rev. 1:1-2:5 isan addition by a later hand).The colophon, written by a monk named Anthony, dates it to the year1079 (though for some reason the Kurzgefasste Liste simplygives the manuscript's date as XI). The text is described byVon Soden as a mix of I and K types in the Acts, and as purelyK (Byzantine) elsewhere. The Alands do not place 93 in anyCategory, but this implicitlysupports Von Soden, as uncategorized manuscripts are usually veryheavily but not quite purely Byzantine. Wachtel lists it as beingbetween 20% and 30% non-Byzantine in the Catholic Epistles. In the Apocalypse,Schmid places 93 in the dominant or "a"group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. The manuscript has theusual lectionary equipment, prologues, etc.

Manuscript 94

Paris, National Library Coislin Gr. 202 (folios 27-328; this numberalso includes a portion of Hp).Von Soden's O31 andΑν24;Tischendorf/Scrivener 18a, 22p, 18r.Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse complete and with commentary.The Apocalypse is dated paleographically to the twelfth century; the Actsand Epistles to the thirteenth (so the Kurzgefasste Liste; Scrivenerlists eleventh and twelfth, respectively. The change in script correspondsto a change in writing material; the first portion is on parchment, the rest onpaper). The commentary on the Apocalypse is that of Andeas; Von Soden liststhe rest as having the commentary of the (pseudo-)Oecumenius, thoughScrivener describes it simply as "scholia to the Acts and CatholicEpistles... [prologues] to St. Paul's Epistles." Von Soden, as usual,classifies the text by its commentary; the Alands list it asCategory III in the Acts and CatholicEpistles "but clearly lower for Paul and Revelation."In the Catholic Epistles, Wachtel lists it as having from 30% to 40%non-Byzantine readings.

Manuscript 104

Location/Catalog Number

British Library, London. Catalog number: Harley 5537.


104 contains the Acts, Epistles, and Revelation complete. It is writtenon parchment, one column per page.


Dated by its colophon to 1087.

Description and Text-type

Generally listed as an Alexandrian witness, and it does have Alexandrianreadings in the Epistles, although it is more Byzantine than anything else.There are also hints of other text-types -- e.g. 104 shares a certain numberof readings with family 1611. On the whole, the best description of themanuscript is probably "mixed."

Von Soden lists 104 as H in the Acts and Epistles; he lists is at Ib2in the Apocalypse. Merk places it in the Anr group (a sub-groupof the Andreas text). Aland and Aland describe it as Category III in Pauland the Catholics, Category V in Acts and the Apocalypse.

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript

von Soden: α103. Tischendorf: 25a; 31p;7r



Sample Plates:

Editions which cite:
Cited by NA26 for Paul.
Cited by NA27 for Paul.
Cited by UBS3 for Acts, Paul, and the Catholics.
Cited by UBS4 for Paul.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover.

Other Works:

Manuscript 110

London, British Museum Harley 5778. Soden'sα204;Tischendorf/Scrivener 28a, 34p, 8r.Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse with some mutilations: Acts 1:1-20,Rev. 6:14-8:1, 22:19-21 "and perhaps elsewhere" (so Scrivener, whocollated the Apocalypse). Dated paleographicallyto the twelfth century. Classified as K by Von Soden, and the Alandsconcur by placing it in Category V.In the Apocalypse, Schmid places it in the dominant or "a"group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. Scrivener describes it asbeing in "wretched condition, and often illegible."

Manuscript 115

London, British Museum Harley 5559. Soden'sε1096.Contains the Gospels with extensive mutilations: Matt. 1:1-8:10,Mark 5:23-36, Luke 1:78-2:9, 6:4-15, John 11:2-end are all lost, though afew additional words of John 11 can be read. Generally dated to the tenth century;though Scrivener gives a twelfth century date. Classified asIφbby von Soden; other members of this group include7 179 267 659 827 and parts of 185 1082 1391 1402 1606. Wisse, however,does not concur; he finds the manuscript to be Kmix/Kx/Kmix.The Alands do not assign 115 to a Category; thisis not surprising for a manuscript with a text close to but not identical to Kx.The manuscript has only a limited set of reader aids; according toScrivener, it offersκεφαλαια,"some"τιτλοι,the Ammonian sections, and "frequently" the Eusebian apparatus; Scrivenerspeculates that the manuscript was "never quite finished."

Manuscript 118

Oxford, Bodleian Library Auct. D. infr. 2.17 (was BoldeianMisc. Gr. 13). Soden'sε346.Contains the Gospels with some defects; later hands supplied Matt. 1:1-6:2; Luke13:15-14:20, 18:8-19:9, John 16:25-end. The binding also contains portionsof the Psalms on paper. Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century.118 is one of the manuscripts found by Lake to belong toFamily 1; every examination since has confirmedthis. Von Soden listed it asIhb,i.e. part of the b subgroup of Family 1; other manuscripts he placesin this group include 22, 131 (in Mark and Luke), 209, and 872 (in Mark).Wisse concurs with the assignment to the Lake Group, listing 118 as a core member of Family 1.The Alands, interestingly, do not place 118 in anyCategory, but do list it with Family 1.Most seem to agree with Von Soden in placing 118 closer to 209 than to1 and 1582.Scrivener reports the manuscript to be a palimpsest, but with thegospel text uppermost. It has the full set of scribal aids, thoughthe lectionary tables were added later. For more details on the text,see the entry on Family 1.

Manuscript 138

Rome, Vatican Library Greek 757. Soden's A201 andCι24.Contains the Gospels with a commentary and minor lacunae. Universally dated to thetwelfth century. The commentary on Mark is that of Victor; elsewhereScrivener lists it as being primarily from Origen, though Von Soden considersit to be the "Antiochene commentary" (Chrysostom on Matthew,Victor on Mark, Titus of Bostra in Luke) in the Synoptic Gospels whileJohn is listed as having the "Anonymous Catena." The text itself VonSoden places in the Ac group -- a generally undistinguished groupcontaining such manuscripts as 127, 129, 137, 139, 143, 151, 374, 377,391, 747, 989, 1312, 1313, 1392.In any case Wisse's classifications do not accord with von Soden's; themanuscripts von Soden lists as Ac appear to belong to almostevery Byzantine subgroup. 138 itself was profiled only in Luke 1, butthere Wisse lists it as Kx This is supported by the Alands,who classify 138 as Category V. Scrivenersummarizes Burgon's report on the manuscript by saying that thecommentary is "mixed up with the text, both in a slovenly hand."
James Dowden, however, tells me that, in John at least, 138 may bemore interesting than this. Bruce Morrill in his Ph.D. thesis found that138 357 994 2575 2684 seem to form a group which may be a subgroup ofthe Lake Group (Family 1). This probably deservesdeeper investigation.

Manuscript 141

Rome, Vatican Library Greek 1160. Soden'sδ408; Tischendorf141e, 75a, 86p, 40r.Contains the New Testament complete. Dated paleographically to thethirteenth cetury by Gregory, Aland, Scrivener; von Soden prefersthe fourteenth. The text of the manuscript is not noteworthy;both Von Soden and Wisse declare it to belong to Krin the Gospels, and the Alands classify 141 asCategory V throughout. In the ApocalypseSchmid places it in the dominant or "a"group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. It is in two volumes, withthe two volumes numbered separately. In the Acts and Epistles it hasthe Euthalian apparatus, though it does not appear to have the text.The full lectionary equipment is supplied, and it has pictures, butlike most Kr manuscripts it lacks the Eusebian apparatus.

Manuscript 157

Rome, Vatican Library Urbin Gr. 2. Soden'sε207.Contains the Gospels complete. Universally dated to the twelfth century, based bothon the writing and on a pair of pictures, of the Emperor Alexius Comnenus(Byzantine Emperor 1081-1118) and his son John (II) Comnenus (1118-1143). Itwas apparently written for John Comnenus, and waswas brought to Rome by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534).Classified as Iσby von Soden, the other members of this group being 235(part) 245 291713 1012. Wisse's data, however, paints a completely different picture;he finds 157 to be a member of Kx in Luke 1, mixed withsome relationship to the Alexandrian text ("Group B") in Luke 10,and Alexandrian in Luke 20. The other manuscripts ofIσ do notshare this profile, and in fact do not seem to be related to each other at all.That 157 is mixed is confirmed by the Alands, who list it asCategory III, and by Hort,who considered it mixed but still the most important minusculeof the gospels other than 33. Streeter thought it Alexandrianwith "Cæsarean" influence -- but it should be notedthat Streeter thought everything had "Cæsarean" influence.Zahn thought it might have had Marcionite influence. Hoskier, who collated it(J.T.S. xiv, 1913), thought there were points of contact with thePalestinian Syriac. 157 is noteworthy for having theJerusalem Colophon after each gospel.Scrivener observes that 157 is "very beautifully written... [with]certain chronicles and rich ornaments in vermillion and gold." It hasother pictures in addition to the portraits of the Emperors, as well as lectionaryapparatus.
Sample plate in EdwardMaunde Thompson, An Introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography(plate 68).

Manuscript 160

Rome, Vatican Library Barb. Gr. 445. Soden'sε213.Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by its colophon to the year 1123.Classified as Iφcby von Soden, the other members of this group being 945 990 1010 1207(part) 1223 1293.Iφ is Streeter'sFamily 1424, but the c branch, if it is part of the family at all, is veryweak. Wisse lists 160 as Mixed in Luke 1 and Kx Cluster 160 in Luke10 and 20. It is interesting to note, however, that all three manuscripts whichWisse lists in Cluster 160 (160, 1010,and 1293) were called Iφc by von Soden; this would seem to imply atleast some unique traits to that group. Given theconnection of this group with Kx, it is surprising to note that theAlands do not list a Category for 160, implying thatthey find it to be somewhat less than purely Byzantine. Themanuscript itself has the full lectionary equipment and the Ammonian Sections,but no Eusebian apparatus.

Manuscript 162

Rome, Vatican Library Barb. Gr. 449. Soden'sε214.Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by its colophon to May 13, 1153.Classified as I by von Soden, but with no subgroup specified; itis not one of his regularly cited manuscripts. It would appear thatthis was a casual classification -- based, perhaps, on the manuscript'sreading in Luke 11:2, where it hasελθετω σου τοπνευμα το αγιονκαι καθαρισατωημαςforελθετω ηβασιλεια σου-- a reading shared, in its essentials, by 700, Marcion (orTertullian in talking about Marcion), Maximus, andGregory of Nyssa but no other known witnesses. In any case, Wisse does notconcur with von Soden's classification of 162 as an I witness (which would make itWestern or "Cæsarean"); he lists162 as Kx/Kmix/Kx, and the Alandsconfirm its Byzantine nature by placing it in Category V. The manuscript, written by oneManuel, has the Eusebian apparatus but no lectionary equipment at all.

Manuscript 174

Rome, Vatican Library Gr. 2002. Soden'sε109.Contains the Gospels complete with major lacunae; Matt. 1:1-2:1, John 1:1-27,8:47-end are gone. Dated by its colophon to September 7, 1052.Classified as Iιb --that is, as part of Family 13 -- by von Soden, butonly in Matthew is it cited. Wisse confirms that its text shifts, for he placesit in Group Λ in Luke.The Alands seem to confirm this as well; although they list 174 as a member of Family 13in NA27, they do not assign it to a Category(most members of Family 13 are Category III; the fact that 174 is not implies thatit is weaker than other members of the family). For more details onFamily 13, see the entry on that manuscript. 174 itself waswritten by a monk named Constantine under the authority of "Georgilas duxCalabriae" [Scholz]. It has the full Ammonian and Eusebian apparatus, pluslectionary indications, but the lists of readings, if it had any, have not survived.

Manuscript 175

Rome, Vatican Library Gr. 2080. Soden'sδ95;Tischendorf/Scrivener 175e, 41a, 194p,20r.Contains the entire New Testament except for Matt. 1:1-4:17.Dated paleographically to the tenth century (so Gregory, Aland, von Soden;Scrivener would allow any date between the tenth and twelfth).Von Soden classifies the Gospels as Kx, but Wisse lists themas weak Πa.The Alands seem to agree with the latter judgement, as they do not place175 in any Category (which usually meansthat the manuscript is strongly Byzantine but not a member of Kxor Kr). In the Acts and Epistles, Von Soden lists the textas K (Byzantine), and there is no reason to doubt this. In the Apocalypse Schmid places it in the dominant or "a"group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. The arrangement of the sections isunusual; Scrivener notes that the book places them in the order Gospels,Acts (with scholia), Apocalypse, Catholic Epistles, Paul. The book has"some" marginal corrections from the first hand. Paul hasthe Euthalian subscriptions, but otherwise the marginal equipment islimited.

Manuscript 177

Munich, Bavarian State Library Gr. 211. Soden'sα106;Tischendorf/Scrivener179a, 128p, 82r.Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse complete.Dated paleographically to the eleventh century (so Soden, Scrivener, and theListe; Delitzsch suggested the thirteenth century).Von Soden classifies it as Ia3 in the Acts and Paul;in the Catholic Epistles he lists it as K. If it is a member ofIa3 (a group consisting mostly of late Alexandrian witnesseswith greater or lesser degrees of Byzantine mixture), it must be aweak one, as the Alands list 177 asCategory V (Byzantine) throughout.In the Apocalypse Schmid places 177 in the dominant or "a"group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. In addition to the NewTestament material, it contains the treatise by Dorotheus of Tyre (fl. c.360) on the Twelve and the Seventy (found also in 82,459, etc.). Scrivener reports that the text is "very near thatcommonly received." It also contains fragments of Eusebius'scanon tables (perhaps implying that it was once a complete New Testament);there are marginal scholia on Paul from a later hand.

Manuscript 179

Rome, Angelicus Library 11. Soden'sε211.Contains the gospels with lacunae. Dated paleographicallyto the twelfth century. Classified asIφb;other manuscripts of this group include 7 115 179 185(part) 267 659 8271082(part) 1391(part) 1402(part) 1606(part). This classification isnot confirmed by Wisse, who lists 179 as Mix/Kx/Kxand seems to dissolve theIφ groups(except for Iφr).The Alands do not place 179 in any Category,implying that they agree with Wisse's classification as mostly but notpurely Byzantine. The lectionary lists in 179are in a later hand (fifteenth or sixteenth century) on supplied leaves.Seven other leaves (five at the end) are also from later hands.

Manuscript 180

Rome, Vatican Library Borgiae Gr. 18. Soden'sε1498,α300; Tischendorf/Scrivener180e, 82a, 92p, 44r.Contains the New Testament complete. The gospels, which were written by oneAndreas, are dated paleographically to the twelfth century (so Aland;Scrivener says XI, and Gregory proposed XIV). The remainder of the NewTestament (with some additional material) were written by John, evidentlyin November 1273. The gospels are classified as Kxby von Soden (this seems to have been the only section he examined), and thisis confirmed by Wisse, who places it in Kx Cluster 180 inthe two chapters profiled. Other members of Cluster 180 are 998 and 1580.The Alands also confirm that 180 is Byzantine in the Gospels, where theyplace it in Category V. They also classifyit as Category V in Paul, the Catholic Epistles, and the Apocalypse(in the latter it goes with the largest "a" Koine group headedby 046); in the Acts, however, they raise it to Category III. Includeslectionary apparatus.

Manuscript 181

Rome, Vatican Library Reg. Gr. 179. Soden'sα101,α1578; Tischendorf/Scrivener40a, 46p, 12r.Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse. The basic run of the text,containing the Acts and Catholic Epistles, plus Paul through Titus 3:3, isdated to the eleventh century. The remainder of the text (Titus 3:3-end,Philemon, and the Apocalypse) was supplied in the fifteenth century.The text is arranged according to the Euthalian edition, and so isclassified by Von Soden as Ia1 -- most of the other members of this group(which contains 88 917 1898 throughout the Acts and Epistles, plus in the Acts andCatholics 36 307 431 610 453 915 1829 1874, in Paul and the Catholics 1838,and 1912 in Paul alone) are also Euthalian (see Von Soden i.674). In Paul,however, 181 does not seem to be a good representative of the type; samplesindicate that its text is about 80% Byzantine, and there are hints ofblock mixture with the Byzantine text. In the Acts the text is noticeably better, and has a numberof Alexandrian readings. The Alands place 181 in Category the Acts and Epistles, V in the Apocalypse (though their numbers in the Catholicsbarely qualify it for that category, and it does not appear in Wachtel's lists. Clearly181 is better in the Acts than elsewhere). The later additions to the manuscriptare classified as Ia2 by Von Soden; in the Apocalypse it has anAndreas type of text, forming part of the groupwhich also contains 1 598 2026 2028 2029 2031 2033 2038 2044 2052 20542056 2057 2059 2060 2065 2068 2069 2081 2083 2186 2286 2302. 181 itself,however, does not have the text of the commentary. It does have lectionaryapparatus but no synaxarion. We first hear of the manuscript during thepapacy of Alexander VIII (1689-1691), when Christina presented it to thatpope.

Manuscript 185

Florence, Bibl. Laurenz. VI.16. Soden'sε410.Contains the gospels complete. Dated paleographicallyto the fourteenth century (Scrivener says twelfth). Classified by von Soden asIφb(but in John only); other manuscripts of this group include 7 115 179185(part) 267 659 8271082(part) 1391(part) 1402(part) 1606(part). This classification isnot confirmed by Wisse, who lists 185 as Cluster 1531 along with suchmanuscripts as 1531, 2291, 2387, and 2771.The Alands list 185 as Category V(Byzantine). It should be noted, however, that neither Wisse northe Alands examined readings in John; thus its text has notbeen fully examined. It is at least possible that it is block mixed,with a better text in John than elsewhere.Physically 185 is not noteworthy; it haslectionary indications and the Ammonian Sections but not theEusebian apparatus.

Manuscript 189

Florence, Bibl. Laurenz. VI.27. Soden'sε1401,α269;Tischendorf/Scrivener 189e, 141a, 239p.Contains the Acts and Epistles complete and the gospels with lacunae(lacking John 19:38-end). The Acts and Epistles are dated paleographicallyto the twelfth century, and the Gospels to the fourteenth (exceptthat Scrivener dates the whole to the twelfth century). The gospelsare classified as Kr by Von Soden, and this is confirmedby Wisse (who further classifies 189 as Cluster 189 along with 1236,1625, and perhaps 825). This is consistent with the marginal apparatusof 189, which lacks the Ammonian/Eusebian material. The Alands alsoconcur, describing 189 as Category V(Byzantine). Outside the gospels, the Alands still list 189 asCategory V, agreeing with Von Soden's"K" classification. The manuscript has the Euthalianapparatus (though not the arrangement or text). Scrivener describesthe manuscript itself as "minute [certainly true; it measures12 cm. x 7 cm.] and beautifully written."

Manuscript 201

London, British Museum Add. 11837. Soden'sδ403;Tischendorf/Scrivener 201e, 91a, 104p,94r; also mscr (Gospels); pscr (Acts/Paul);bscr (Apocalypse).Contains the compete New Testament. Dated by a colophon to 1357. The gospelsare classified as Kr by Von Soden, and this is confirmedby Wisse (who notes that it is a "perfect member" of the group).The Alands also concur, listing 201 as Category Vin all sections. Wachtel lists it as a member of Kr in theCatholics. In the Apocalypse, Schmid places it in the dominant or "a"group of the Byzantine text headed by 046.Scrivener says of it that it has "many changes by a later hand;"it also has a very full marginal apparatus, including prologues, subscriptions,and stichoi lists, plus "some foreign matter." Rather curiouslyfor a Kr manuscript, it has the Ammonian Sections and "some"of the Eusebian numbers.

Manuscript 203

London, British Museum Add. 28816. Soden'sα203;Tischendorf/Original Gregory 203a, 477p, 181r;Scrivener 232a, 271p (Acts/Paul), 107r.Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse with lacunae (lacking 1 Cor. 16:15-endplus the prologue to 2 Corinthians; Eph. 5:3-6:16 is supplied in a fifteenthcentury hand). At the end of the volume are ten pages of non-Biblical material(in the original hand).These include a list of the errors condemned by the seven ecumenical councils;Scrivener says that this resemble the exposition in 69.Dated by a colophon to 1111.Von Soden classifies the manuscript as Ic2 in the Acts and Epistles(though he cites it only in Paul, where the other members of the group include221 257 378 383 385 506 639 876 913 1610 1867 2147). This group is of someinterest in the Catholic Epistles (where many of its members are part ofFamily 2138), but in Paul theyseem generally to be of limited value. Its Byzantine nature is confirmed by the Alands, whoplace 203 in Category V.In the Apocalypse, Schmid places it in the dominant or "a"group of the Byzantine text headed by 046.Scrivener says of it that it is "a splendid copy," with"many marginal glosses in a very minute hand." It hasthe κεφαλαιαnumbers in red in the margins and the entries themselves beforeeach epistle. It has the Euthalian apparatus, and Arethas'sprologue and tables on the Apocalypse. It has lectionary indicationsbut no τιτλοι. The scribe was namedAndreas.
Sample plate in Edward Maunde Thompson,An Introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography (plate 67).

Manuscript 205

Venice, Bibl. San Marco 420 (Fondo ant. 5). Soden'sδ500;Tischendorf/Scrivener 205e, 93a, 106p88r.Contains the complete New Testament and the Greek Old Testament. Datedpaleographically to the fifteenth century.The text of 205 has long been recognized as being very close kin to theearlier 209 (at least in the Gospels). The two are such close kin thatseveral scholars, starting with Rinck, have believed that 205 is acopy of 209. Burgon offered the theory that both were copied from thesame uncial ancestor. While the manner has not been definitively settled,the modern opinion seems to be that 205 is not copied from 209, butthat they have a close common ancestor.209, of course, is known to be a member of Family 1;it therefore follows that 205 must also be part of this group. VonSoden acknowledges this by placing 205 in theIηgroup (Family 1; 209 is a member of the "b" subgroup), andWisse concurs, going so far as to say "Pair with 209." (Curiously,the Alands do not list 205 as a member of Family 1, and even insist onciting 205 separately in SQE13. They do list both manuscriptsin the same Categories: Category III inthe Gospels and Apocalypse; Category V in the Acts and Epistles.)In the Acts and Epistles, 205 is listed by Von Soden as Ia(again agreeing with 209, which is Ia3). The data of theAlands, however, clearly implies that 205 is Byzantine (rather thanlate/mixed Alexandrian, as Von Soden's classification would imply).This also means that we cannot determine the manuscript's relationshipwith 209 without detailed examination. In the Apocalypse, Von Sodenlists 205 as an Andreas manuscript, even though it lacks the commentary.Physically, 205 is a rather large volume but with limited marginalia;it lacks the entire Eusebian apparatus (209, by contrast, has theAmmonian sections but not the Eusebian canons) as well as all lectionarydata. It has the κεφαλαιαin both Greek and Latin, subscriptions, and prologues to the Pauline andCatholic Epistles. It was written for Cardinal Bessarion, probablyby his librarian John Rhosen. A copy of 205 exists; now designated205abs, it is Tischendorf/Scrivener 206e,94a, 107p, 101r. (Note: It is theopinion of most examiners that 205 is the original and 205absthe copy; Maurice Robinson, however, based on the text in the storyof the Adulteress, believes that 205abs is the originaland 205 the copy.) For more details on the text of 205, see the entry on1 and Family 1.

Manuscript 206

London, Lambeth Palace 1182. Soden'sα365;original Gregory 214a, 270p;Scrivener 182a, 252p, ascr;Hort 110.Contains the Acts and Epistles with minor lacunae and many latersupplements; Acts 1:1-12:3, 13:5-15, 2 John, 3 John, and Jude arefrom a later (fourteenth century) hand.Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century (except that Scrivener,who probably examined it most fully, says twelfth). Scrivener reports that the readings in Acts"strongly resemble those of [429], and [81] hardly less,especially in [chapters 13-17]."Von Soden lists the text of 206 as Ib1, placing it with242 429 491 522 536 1758 1831 1891 in Acts (1739 2298 323, itshould be noted, are key members of Ib2, so von Soden is placing206 and its relatives in a group similar the the 1739 text); in Paul thegroup members include 2 242 429 522 635 941 1099 1758 1831 1891;in the Catholics 206 is listed along with 216 242 429 440 522 1758 1831 1891.
This classification (rather typically of Von Soden's groups) containsboth truth and falsehood.Thomas C. Geer, Jr., in Family 1739 in Acts, studies 206 (amongothers), and finds that 206 is indeed a member ofFamily 1739 (along with323 429 522 1739 1891; Geer does not examine the other members ofvon Soden's Ib group). Within Family 1739, the closestrelatives of 206 are 429 and 522. Geer does not compare the firsthand of 206 with 206supp, but he does compile separatestatistics for the first and second halves of Acts. It is worth notingthat, in chapters 1-14, 206 agrees only 81% of the time with 429, and75% of the time with 1739 (Geer, p. 69), while in Acts 15-28, itagrees with 429 fully 93% of the time (though still only 77% of thetime with 1739). Thus it appears quite likely that the supplements in206, while having perhaps some kinship with Family 1739, has beenheavily influenced by the Byzantine text. The original hand, by contrast,seems to belong to that subtext of Family 1739 represented also by 429522 630 2200. This grouping is very significant, because these manuscriptsare also akin in the Catholic Epistles. But in the Catholic Epistles,instead of being members of Family 1739 (which, it should be noted,is even more distinctive in the Catholics than in Acts), the 206-groupshifts and become members of Family 2138.This kinship has been confirmed by all who have investigated the matter;Wachtel places 206 in his group Hkgr along with 429 522630 2200 (plus such important manuscripts as 614 1505 1611 1799 2138 2412 2495,which are not related to the 206-429-522-630-2200 group in Acts).Similarly, Richards places 206 in his A1 group along with614 1611 1799 2138 2412 (in 1 John; the supplements in 2 and 3 John Richardsfinds to be Byzantine). And Amphoux places 206 in Family 2138 (along withnearly all the above manuscripts, plus such others as 1108 and 1518).In Paul, 206 has not been as heavily studied; our best information comesfrom the Alands, who list 206 as Category Vin Paul (they list it as Category III in the Catholics -- along with allthe other members of Family 2138; in Acts, they list 206 as Category V,but here the supplement may have mislead them). 429 and 522 are alsoCategory V in Paul; it thus appears likely that these three manuscripts arerelated throughout. (630 and 2200 are not wholely Byzantine inPaul; in the latter books, they are Byzantine, but in Romans throughGalatians they are weak members of Family 1739. In addition, they appearto be closer to 1739 in Acts. Thus 630 and 2200 might possibly representa forerunner of the 206-429-522 text, but are not actually part of it.)Physically, Scrivener reports of 206 that it has Paul before theCatholic Epistles, that it is illustrated, that it has full lectionaryapparatus, and that it includes antiphons for Easter and "otherforeign matter." It is said to have come from a Greek island.See also the discussion on 429 or on522.

Manuscript 213

Venice, Bibl. San Marco 542 (Fondo ant. 544). Soden'sε129.Contains the Gospels with mutilations (John 18:40-end have beenlost). Universally dated to the eleventh century. Classified by Von Soden asI0 -- a group which contains a very mixed bag ofmanuscripts: U X 443 1071 1321(part) 1574 2145.Wisse classifies 213 as mixed throughout. The Alands do notassign it to any Category.Some of the confusion may be due to a poor scribe; 213 hasmany strange properties. Scrivener notes "heroic versesas colophons to the Gospels," "[l]arge full stops inimpossible places," the Ammonian/Eusebian apparatus"most irregularly inserted," and only scatteredlectionary indications.

Manuscript 223

Location/Catalog Number

Ann Arbor. Catalog number: University of Michigan MS. 34. It was originallyacquired at Janina in Epirus.


223 contains the Acts and Epistles, with some minor defects (in Paul,2 Corinthians 1:1-3, Eph. 1:1-4, Hebrews 1:1-6 are missing; Scrivener believesthey were cut out for the sake of the illuminations). It is writtenon parchment, 1 column per page. The parchment is of excellent quality,and the manuscript has many colorful illuminations, implying that unusualeffort and expense was devoted to its preparation. Scrivener says of it,"This is one of the most superb copies extant of the latter part of theN.T., on which so much cost was seldom bestowed as on the gospels."


Dated paleographically to the fourteenth century. A colophon at the endof Jude states that it was written by Antonios of Malaka, who is also creditedwith writing 1305 (dated by its colophon to 1244) andl279 (datedpaleographically to the twelfth century). The dating of the manuscript isthus problematic. It is noteworthy, however, that the colophon of223 is not in the hand of the original scribe.

Description and Text-type

Von Soden lists 223 as Kc. Clark and his collaboratorsquestioned this, since von Soden's collation was highly inaccurate.However, spot checks indicate that 223 possesses about 70% of the characteristicreadings of Kc. Thus it is likely that it is at least a weakKc witness.

Aland and Aland list 223 as Category V,i.e. Byzantine. This is clearly correct.

Richards lists 223 as belonging to his B3 group in the JohannineEpistles, having all nine of the characteristic readings in 1 John. Othermembers of this group, with von Soden's classification of them, are97 (K), 177 (rather weakly, K), 1597 (Kx), 1872 (Ib2,but Kc in r), and 2423.

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript
von Soden: α186. Scrivener: 220a; 264p.Tischendorf: 223a; 278p


K.W. Clark, Eight American Praxapostoloi (1941).

Sample Plates:
Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible (1 page)

Editions which cite:

Other Works:

Manuscript 225

Naples, Bibl. Naz., Cod. Vein. 9. Soden'sε1210.Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by its colophon to 1192.The manuscript is among the smallest known, measuring less than 14cm. by 10 cm. Perhaps to accommodate such a pocket edition,the Eusebian and Ammonian apparatus are omitted, as are most otherreader helps except the lectionary markings (the manuscript issupplied with pictures, however). Classified by Von Soden asAk -- a group which also contains5, 15, 32, 53, 169, 269, 292, 297, 416, 431, 448,470, 490, 496, 499, 534, 546, 558, 573, 715, 752, 760, 860, 902,946, 968, 976, 987, 1011, 1015, 1058, 1091, 1163, 1167, 1171,1211, 1227, 1291, 1299, 1321, 1439, 1481, 1484, 1498, 1566, 1800,2142, and 2176. These manuscripts are, however, mostly Byzantine,and Wisse largely disregards this group. 225 itself he classifiesas Kmix/1167/1167; other members of Group 1167 include 75 116(part)245(part) 431 496 546 578(part) 843 896 951 1015 1167 1242(part) 14381479(part) 1511(part) 1570 2095(part) 2229 2604. The Alands more orless confirm that 225 is Byzantine but not a mainstream witness to thetype by refusing to assign it to a Category.The most noteworthy thing about 225's text, however, is where it placesthe story of the Adulteress (John 7:53-8:11). Alone among all knownwitnesses, it places the story after John 7:36.

Manuscript 229

Escorial X.IV.21. Soden'sε1206.Contains the Gospels with lacunae (lacking Mark 16:15-20, John 1:1-11).Dated by its colophon to 1140.Classified by Von Soden asIkc -- i.e. as a offshoot of FamilyΠ; othermembers of this group include 280 473 482 1354.Wisse, however, reports that 229 is block mixed; it isΠain Luke 1, Kx in Luke 10 and 20. The Alands do notassign it to a Category; thisperhaps implies that the Family Πelement predominates, as they usually classify Kx witnessesas Category V but leave Family Πwitnesses unclassified. Scrivener notes that it was written by "BasilArgyropolus, a notary." It includes pictures. A later handhas added lectionary indications and retraced parts of the text, aswell as correcting various readings (apparently correcting theFamily Π texttoward the Byzantine mainstream, as Scrivener reports that theoriginal readings resemble those of A and K, both of which areassociated with that family.)

Manuscript 235

Copenhagen, Kgl. Bibl. GkS 1323, 40. Soden'sε456.Described by Scrivener as "written by theιερομοναχοςPhilotheus, though very incorrectly; the text agrees much withCodd. DK. i. 33 and the Harkleian Syriac.... [T]he words areoften ill-divided and the stops misplaced." The kinshipwith these manuscripts is, however, at best very weak; Von Sodenlists it as Iσ(along with 157 245 291 713 1012), but cites it only for John. Wisselists it as Kmix/Kx/Kx, and the Alands alsoregard it as Byzantine, listing it asCategory V.

Manuscript 245

Moscow, Historical Museum V.16, S.278. Soden'sε1226.Dated by its colophon to the the 1199. Written by"John, a priest" and formerly kept at the monastery ofBatopedion. Von Soden categorizes its text asIσ;other manuscripts of this type include 157 235(John) 291 713 1012.Wisse lists the text as Kmix/1167/1167. The members of Group 1167do not correspond to those of Von Soden's group.Whatever its exact type, it seems certain that the manuscriptis primarily Byzantine, and this is reflected by the Alands,who list it as Category V.

Manuscript 249

Moscow, Historical Museum V. 90, S.93. Soden'sNι10.Contains the Gospel of John (only), with a catena. Its datingvaries wildly; Aland says XIV, Scrivener XI. Von Soden's numberimplies that he agrees with Scrivener. Von Soden lists it as havingNicetas's commentary on John, assigning its symbol on this basis(other manuscripts with this commentary include 317 333 423 430 743).Merk lists the text-type as K (Byzantine). Little else can be said ofit; the Alands do not assign it to a Category(presumably because it contains only John, and they tested only Matthewthrough Luke), and Wisse of course does not profile it. Originallyfrom Mount Athos.

Manuscript 251

Moscow, Russian Gosud. Library Greek 9. Von Soden'sε192.Contains the gospels complete. Dated paleographically to the eleventh(Scrivener, von Soden) or twelfth (Aland) century. Von Soden lists itas a member of I' (the vaguest of all the I groups, containing a handfulof Byzantine uncials, assorted uncial fragments -- not all of which areByzantine -- and many mostly-Byzantine minuscules). Wisse lists 251 asa member of Cluster 1229, the other members of this group being 1229(which, like 251, von Soden lists as I') and 2487. The Alands do notassign 251 to a Category, implying thatit contains at least some readings (though not many) which are notpurely Byzantine. Physically, 251 has the Eusebian tables and Ammoniansections, but not the Eusebian marginalia; these perhaps were neverfinished. 251 has illustrations, but no lectionary equipment.

Manuscript 262

Paris, National Library Greek 53. Soden'sε1020.Contains the Gospels complete, though the marginalia seem notto have been completed; Scrivener reports that it has"some" τιτλοι.The Ammonian and Eusebian apparatus (including harmonizations) arecomplete in Matthew and Mark, but only partial, and in a laterhand, in Luke and John. 262 is universally dated to the tenth century.Scrivener observed a similarity to Λ,and this is confirmed both by Von Soden (who places it in the Irgroup with Λ 545 11871555 1573) and Wisse (who makes it a core member of Group Λ).The Alands assign it to Category Vas Byzantine.

Manuscript 263

Paris, National Library Greek 61. Soden'sδ372.Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles complete. Dated paleographicallyto the thirteenth century. The text is generally uninteresting; in theGospels, von Soden listed it as K1, which Wisse corrects minimallyto Kx, and the Alands list it asCategory V (Byzantine). The Alands alsoplace it in Category V in the Acts and Catholic Epistles (though VonSoden listed it as Ia3, based probably on the text of Paul).The one exception to this trend of ordinariness is in Paul. Here theAlands promote it to Category III, and Von Soden's Ia3classification makes somewhat more sense. Bover, in particular,specifies it as a member of "Family 1319" (for which see theentry on 365 and Family 2127) -- and while 263 doesnot seem as good as the leading members of the family (256, 365, 1319, 2127),there does seem to be kinship. Scrivener believed the manuscriptcame from Asia Minor, and this is perhaps reasonable for a text somewhatrelated to the Armenian version. In the Gospels, it has Ammonian Sectionsbut not the Eusebian equipment, and lectionary indications but no tables.

Manuscript 265

Paris, National Library Greek 66. Soden'sε285.Contains the Gospels complete. Generally dated to thetwelfth century, though Scrivener lists the tenth. Classified byVon Soden as Ika,i.e. as a member of the main Family Πgroup, along with such manuscripts as A K Y Π This is confirmedby Wisse, who lists it as a core member of the mainΠagroup. The Alands do not place it in any Category;this is fairly typical for Family Πmanuscripts. Physically, the manuscript has the Eusebian apparatusbut not much else; lectionary equipment is lacking.

Manuscript 267

Paris, National Library Greek 69. Soden's ε1289.Contains the Gospels with minor lacunae (missing Matt. 1:1-8,Mark 1:1-7, Luke 1:1-8, Luke 24:50-John 1:12 -- perhaps cut outfor the sake of illustrations or the like?). Generally dated to thetwelfth century, though Scrivener lists the tenth. Classified byVon Soden as Iφbalong with such manuscripts as 7 115 179 185(part) 659 827 1082(part) 1391(part)1402(part) 1606(part). That it is close to 7, at least, is confirmed by Wisse,who places 267 in Cluster 7 along with 7, 1651, and 1654.The Alands place 267 in Category V(Byzantine). The manuscript is slightly unusual in having the Ammonian andEusebian numbers in the same line.

Manuscript 270

Paris, National Library Greek 75. Soden'sε291.Contains the Gospels complete. Generally dated to thetwelfth century, though Scrivener lists the eleventh. Classified byVon Soden as Ikb(i.e. as a member of one of the weaker subgroups of Family Π)along with such manuscripts as 726 1200 1375.Wisse confirms its kinship with the Πgroups, listing it as part of the b subgroup in Luke 1 and the a subgroupin Luke 10 and 20.The Alands place 270 in Category V(Byzantine). Curiously, Scrivener reports that the manuscript has bothsynaxarion and menologion (along with illustrations and the Eusebianapparatus), but no lectionary indications in the text.

Manuscript 273

Paris, National Library Greek 79. Soden'sε370.Contains the Gospels with some slight damage, most of it made good bya supplement. Dated paleographically to the thirteenth centuryby Aland and von Soden; Scrivener lists the twelfth century and datesthe supplements (which are on paper; the rest of the manuscript is vellum)to the fourteenth century. Classified byVon Soden as I', i.e. as one of the miscellaneous weak "Western"witnesses. Wisse, however, finds it to be mostly Byzantine; he listsit as Kmix/Kx/Kmix.The Alands do not place 273 in any Category,which usually means it is strongly but not quite purely Byzantine; thisperhaps supports Wisse's analysis. Scrivener lists it as having avery full marginalia (though some of the lectionary material is fromthe later hand), and says of it that is "contains also somescholia, extracts from Sererianus's commentary, annals of theGospels, a list of gospel parallels, with a mixed text."

Manuscript 280

Paris, National Library Greek 87. Soden'sε294.Contains the Gospels with some damage (Mark 8:3-15:36 aremissing). Dated paleographically to the twelfth century. Classified byVon Soden as Ikc(i.e. as a member of one of the weaker subgroups of Family Π)along with such manuscripts as 229 473 482 1354.Wisse confirms its kinship with the Πgroups, but lists it as a core member of the primary groupΠa.The Alands place 280 in Category V(Byzantine); this may indicate that it it less pure in the othergospels than it is in Luke (since the Alands usually do not assignΠamanuscripts to any category). However, it could also be an indicationof the Alands' lack of control of their Categories.

Manuscript 291

Paris, National Library Greek 113. Soden'sε377.Contains the Gospels complete. Dated paleographically to the twelfth (Scrivener)or thirteenth (Aland, von Soden) century. Written with silver ink, butwith relatively few reader aids (lectionary markings but no tables;no Ammonian or Eusebian apparatus). Classified byVon Soden as Iσ-- a strange mixed group containing also 157 235(part) 245 713 1012.Wisse however places 291 in its own Group 291, which he associates looselywith the Πgroups; other members of this group are 139 371 449 597 1235 13402346 2603 2728.The Alands place 280 in Category V(Byzantine).

Manuscript 304

Paris, National Library Greek 194. Soden'sCμ23,A215. Contains the gospels of Matthew and Mark (only),with commentary interspersed with the text. Dated paleographicallyto the twelfth (von Soden, Aland) or thirteenth (Scrivener)century.Classified by von Soden based on the commentary: He lists it as having the"Anonymous Catena" on Matthew (one of only three manuscriptsto have this commentary, the others being 366 and 2482) and the"Antiochene Commentary" of Victor on Mark. (Scrivener quotesBurgon to the effect that the commentary on Mark is a "modificationof Victor's," however.) The Alands list 304 asCategory V (Byzantine). Since the manuscriptdoes not include Luke, it has not been studied by Wisse, but there is noparticular reason to doubt the Alands' judgement. Thus there is no reasonto consider 304 particularly unusual -- except for the fact that it iscommonly cited in critical apparati (NA27, UBS4,etc.) as omitting the longer ending of Mark (16:9-20). Maurice Robinsonhas examined a microfilm of the end of the manuscript, however, and offersthese observations: "[T]he primary matter [in 304] is the commentary.The gospel text is merely interspersed between the blocks of commentary material,and should not be considered the same as a 'normal' continuous-text MS. Also, it is often verydifficult to discern the text in contrast to the comments....
"Following γαρ2at the close of [16:8], the MS has a mark like a filled-in 'o,'followed by many pages of commentary, all of which summarize theendings of the other gospels and even quote portions of them.
"Following this, the commentary then begins to summarize theετερον δε ταπαρα του Μαρκου,presumably to cover the non-duplicated portions germaneto that gospel in contrast to the others. There remain quotes andreferences to the other gospels in regard to Mary Magdalene, Peter,Galilee, the fear of the women, etc. But at this point the commentaryabruptly ends, without completing the remainder of the narrative or theparallels. I suspect that the commentary (which contains only Mt and Mk)originally continued the discussion and that a final page or pages at theend of this volume likely were lost.... I would suggest that MS 304 shouldnot be claimed as a witness to the shortest ending...."

Manuscript 307

Paris, National Library Coislin Greek 25. Soden'sAπρ11;Tischendorf/Scrivener 15a.Contains the Acts and Catholic Epistles complete. Dated paleographicallyto the tenth (Aland) or eleventh (Scrivener) century. Commentary manuscript,described by both Von Soden and Scrivener as that of Andreas the Presbyter.Von Soden classified it as Ia1 (along with 36ac 88 181 307 431 453610 915 917 1829 1836(caths only) 1874 1898). Some of these manuscriptsprobably are not allies of 307, but at least some are; an examination of thedata in the UBS4 apparatus to Acts shows that 36, 307, 453, 610, and1678 (all Andreas manuscripts) agree over 90% of the time (and 100% or nearly in non-Byzantinereadings; for details, see the entry on 453). Geer, based on thedata compiled by the Alands (who classify 307 as Category III), notes a very high agreementof 307 with 453 and 2818 (the new number for 36). The situation is slightly morecomplicated in the Catholic Epistles; here Wachtel identifies a groupcontaining 36 94 307 453 720 918 1678 2197, but does not place 307 in thesame subgroup as 453. The text of 307 itself is said to have been "compared withPamphilius'[s] revision" [Scrivener]. It is cited in NA28 for the Catholic Epistles, but was not cited in earlier Nestle editions.

Manuscript 314

Oxford, Bodleian Library Barroc. 3. Soden's O11;Tischendorf/Scrivener 23a, 28p, 6r.Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse with severe mutilations.Losses include Acts 1:1-11:12 (with 1:1-3:10 replaced by a later hand),14:6-17:19, 20:28-24:12, 1 Pet. 2:2-16, 3:7-21, 2 Cor. 9:15-11:9,Gal. 1:1-18, Eph. 6:1-19, Phil 4:18-23, Rev. 1:10-17, 9:12-18,17:10-18:11. Dated paleographically to the eleventh century. Commentary manuscript;Scrivener describes it as having "scholia on the Epistles"(identified by Von Soden as the commentary of (the pseudo-)Oecumenius) and "afull and unique commentary on the Apocalypse." As usual, Von Sodensimply describes it as an Oecumenius manuscript; in the Apocalypse helists it as being of type K0, but Merk modifies this toplace it among the Arethas manuscripts. Schmid grouped it with the"a" or primary Byzantine group (headed by 046) in theApocalypse. The Alands simply list it as Category V (i.e. Byzantine), thoughone wonders if they really had enough text of Acts for the determinationto be reliable there. Scrivener calls it "a beautiful little book,"and it certainly is small (13 cm. x 10 cm.), and in a small hand. Apartfrom the commentary, the only marginal equipment are theκεφαλαια; it alsohas prologues and τιτλοιbut no lectionary or other apparatus.

Manuscript 317

Paris, National Library Greek 212. Soden's Nι31.Contains somewhat more than half of John (10:9-end), with a commentary reported by von Soden to be that of Nicetas. Dated paleographically to the twelfth century. Textually, relatively little is known about the manuscript. Wisse did not examine it, as it does not contain Luke, and von Soden simply listed it among the Nicetas manuscripts (the other manuscripts with the Johannine portion of this commentary include 249 333 423 430 743). The Alandsdo not assign 317 to any Category, becausethey examined test readings only from the Synoptic Gospels. Thus 317 hasnever been subjected to any systematic textual evaluation.

Manuscript 319

Cambridge, England, Christ's College MS. DD.1.9 (Aland's number)or F.1.13 (James, Scrivener).Soden's α256; Tischendorf 24a, 29p.Collated by Scrivener and cited as l in his Codex Augiensis.313 pages with 22 lines per page. James describes it as "Cent. xii, in a fineclear hand, hanging from lines ruled with the dry point." The Listeand Scrivener agree with the twelfth century date although Scrivener notes that there aremany later corrections. James observes that the quires are "wrongly numbered byold hand," adding "There are a good many errors in the numbering of the quires."There are several cancels. Several leaves have been lost; Acts 18.20-20.14,James 5.14-1 Peter 1.4 are lacking. The order of the books is Acts, Catholics,Paul. Hebrews follows Philemon. Two leaves in 2 Timothy are out of order.The Alands list it as Category V (Byzantine).Based on an examination of Scrivener's collation of 319 in Galatians, thisappears correct. There are only 35 differences from the Textus Receptus.One of these is corrected, and in one the corrector has messed up a Byzantinereading. Of the remaining 33, 17 are places where 319 is in fact Byzantineand the TR is not, or places where the Byzantine text divides and 319 followsone of the strands. Of the remaining 16 readings, about half are differencesof spelling or accent. Almost all the remainder appear to be simple scribalslips.

Manuscript 323

Location/Catalog Number

Geneva. Catalog number: Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire,Gr. 20.


323 contains the Acts and Epistles. Acts 1:1-8, 2:36-45 are from a laterhand; there are a few other minor defects. It is written on parchment,one column per page.


Dated paleographically to the eleventh century. Scrivener calls it"beautifully but carelessly written, without subscriptions."

Description and Text-type

323 is very closely related to the fifteenth century minuscule 322;the two are evidently sisters. Beyond that, 323's closest affinity is withthe members of Family 1739 and with the Byzantine text.

323 stands closest to 1739 in the Catholic Epistles, particularly in2 Peter-Jude. In those books it might almost be a copy of 1739 with somecorruptions. In James and 1 Peter it still has affinities with family 1739,but the ties are weaker and the Byzantine text more prominent.

The situation is similar in Acts. 323 appears to belong with family1739, but the Byzantine element is very strong. (So strong that Geertried to classify it as a Byzantine member of family 1739!) For detailson Geer's analysis, see the entry on 1739.

In Paul, 323 is almost entirely Byzantine. The few non-Byzantine readingshint at a family 1739 text (perhaps related to 945), but they are so fewthat no definite conclusions can be reached.

Von Soden lists 323 as Ib2. Aland and Aland list it asCategoryII in the Catholics and Category III elsewhere.Richards lists 323 as amember of Group A3 (Family 1739). Amphoux also associated itwith 1739.

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript
von Soden: α157. Tischendorf: 29a; 35p



Sample Plates:
Aland & Aland (1 page)

Editions which cite:
Cited in NA26 for the Acts and Catholic Epistles.
Cited in NA27 for the Acts and Catholic Epistles.
Cited in NA28 for the Acts and Catholic Epistles.
Cited in UBS4 for the Catholic Epistles.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover, but very rather sketchily (especiallyin Paul).

Other Works:
Thomas C. Geer, Jr., Family 1739 in Acts (Society of BiblicalLiterature Monograph Series, 1994). Consists mostly of tables comparingmanuscripts 206, 322, 323, 429, 453, 522, 630, 945, 1704, 1739, 1891, 2200.The analysis is flawed, but the results are generally valid.

Manuscript 330 and Family 330

Location/Catalog Number

Saint Petersburg. Catalog number: Public Library Gr. 101.


330 originally contained the entire New Testament except the Apocalypse.It is now slightly damaged. 330 is written on parchment, one columnper page.


Dated paleographically to the twelfth century.

Description and Text-type

For the most part, 330 is a quite ordinary Byzantine manuscript. Inthe Gospels, for instance, Von Soden listed it as Kx and Wissespecifies it as Group 16 (a group close to Kx). Colwell describes 330as part of Family 574 (=330 574 [Mix/KxCluster 585 according toWisse] and 1815+2127[Π473 according to Wisse]) in the Gospels. TheAlands classify it as Category V (Byzantine). Although there is obviously somedoubt about the exact Byzantine group to which 330 belongs, there is noquestion but that it is Byzantine.

The same is true in the Acts and Catholic Epistles, where the Alandsagain list 330 as Category V. In the Johnannine Epistles, Richards lists330 as Byzantine, assigning it specifically to Group B1 (whichalso contains 319, 479, 483, 635, 1829, and 1891).

The situation is entirely different in Paul. Here the Alands upgradethe manuscript to Category III. But 330's contentis, perhaps, even more interesting than the typical manuscript of that category.

330 has a unique type of text shared by only three other known manuscripts:451, which outside of Hebrews is almost close enough to 330 to be a sister; 2400(according to Gary S. Dykes);and 2492, which seems to have a slightly more Alexandrian-influenced versionof the same text. The text of family 330, as we have it, is largely Byzantine,but the remaining readings do not belong purely to either the Alexandrianor "Western" texts. The following list shows some of the uniqueor nearly unique readings of 330:

Von Soden lists 330 as Ia3 in the Acts and Epistles. Thisis interesting, since Ia3 also contains 462 and 436, which Davieslinks to 330. Even Davies, however, admits that the strength of the link"varies," and 436 and 462 do not belong to Family 330.Von Soden appears to be correct, however, in believing the family to belinked, very loosely, with Family 2127 (often called Family 1319). The linkprobably comes via the Euthalian recension;330 has the Euthalian apparatus.

There are also hints, although only very slight ones (due to 1506'sfragmentary nature), that Family 330 shouldbe linked to the text of 1506.Given 1506's extraordinary text, the matter deserves examination.

330 is not the best of the Family 330 texts. It is almost purelyByzantine in Hebrews. However, it is the only member of family 330 to havebeen published, and deserves fuller study.

The other members of Family 330 are as follows:

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript
von Soden: δ259. Tischendorf: 330e; 132a; 131p.Also cited as 8pe


M. Davies, The Text of the Pauline Epistles in MS. 2344 (Studies& Documents 38, 1968) collates 330 for Paul, and discusses its relationshipwith 436, 462, and especially 2344.

Sample Plates:

Editions which cite:
Cited in UBS3 for the Acts, Paul, and the Catholic Epistles,but omitted from UBS4.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover for Paul, but this collation is verybad.

Other Works:
E. C. Colwell, The Four Gospels of Karahissar I, History and Text,Chicago, 1936, examines assorted manuscripts in the gospels, placing 330 inFamily 547

Manuscript 348

Milan, Ambrosian Library Barb. B. 56 Sup. Soden'sε121.Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by its colophon to December 29, 1022.Classified as Iβaby von Soden, the other members of this group being 477 1279. Wisse listsit as a core member of Group 1216 (which corresponds to Von Soden'sIβ), andthough Wisse expels many of Soden's family members from the group (and listsno subgroups), he shows all three of theIβamanuscripts as part of Group 1216. Colwell also affirmed the existenceof Iβ.The Alands do not place 348 in any Category; thisis fairly typical for manuscripts with a largely but not purely Byzantine text.Scrivener notes that it is in two columns, with Old Testament citations markedwith an asterisk (a somewhat unusual notation). It has full lectionary andEusebian equipment.
Sample plate in Edward Maunde Thompson,An Introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography (plate 62).

Manuscript 349

Milan, Ambrosian Library F. 61 Sup. Soden'sε413.Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by its colophon to 1322.Classified as Iφaby von Soden, i.e. as a member of Family 1424 (the other membersof this group are 517 954 1188(part) 1424 1675). Wisse does not quite agree;rather than placing 349 in Cluster 1675 (the approximate equivalent ofFamily 1424), he places 349 in M349, pairing it with 2388. (The M groupsare roughly equivalent to von Soden'sIφr). TheAlands do not place 349 in anyCategory; this is fairly typical for manuscriptsof this type. Physically, 349 has relatively little equipment: Ammoniansections but no Eusebian apparatus; lectionary tables but no indicationsin the text. It was taken from Corfu.

Manuscript 356

Cambridge (England), Emmanuelle College I.4.35. Soden's α255.Tischendorf's 53a, 30p (but note that it does notcontain the Acts). It is n in Scrivener's Codex Augiensis.M. R. James says of it "Cent. x, xi (Gregory says xii), in a most beautifulminute hand, hanging from lines ruled with a dry point." It needed to bein a minute hand; it is a tiny codex, 3-5/8" by 3-1/8" or 9.2 cm. x 7.8 cm.Despite this tiny size, there are 24 lines to the page. Not too surprisingly,it uses a very large number of abbreviations. There are 144 regularpages and one added page.According to an inscription, it was given to the college in 1598 by SamuelWright. It contains the Catholic and Pauline Epistles, with several lacunaeand disarrangements. The Catholic Epistles open the manuscript, but pageshave been lost at the beginning. The first extant page probably begins with2 Peter 2:1, but is so illegible that the first really readable verse is2 Peter 2:4. Many other portions of the manuscript are also very hard toread. The text continues to 1 John 3:20, then breaks off, to resumein the middle of the prologue to Romans (which is from Oecumenius).There is another lacuna from 1 Cor. 11:7-15:56.A second hand, "not quite so good," takes up the writing at 1 Tim.6:5, and is responsible for the rest of the surviving text, which breaks off atHebrews 11:27. There are pencilled notations in Latin from about century xiii. This obviouslyimplies that it was brought into the Roman Catholic regions by that century.Scrivener, despite collating it, says nothing about its text, and von Soden didnot classify it. The Alands put it inCategory V (Byzantine).

Manuscript 365 and Family 2127

Location/Catalog Number

Florence. Catalog number: Laurentiana library. VI.36.


365 originally contained the entire New Testament except the Apocalypse,plus the Psalms.Rom. 1:18, 7:18-21, 8:3-31 have been lost. It is written on parchment,one column per page.


Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century.

Description and Text-type

365 first examined by Scholz, then declared "lost" by Burgonwhen a librarian assured him there was no such manuscript. It was "rediscovered"by Gregory.

365 is primarily Byzantine in the Gospels, Acts, and Catholics. In Paulit is significantly different. Although it still has more Byzantine readingsthan anything else, there are a number of Alexandrian readings as well.The vast majority of these readings are shared with 2127 and other textsof what Bover, following the lead of von Soden, calls "family 1319" (a subgroupof the Ia3 text, containing 1319, 2127, 256, 263, etc.; alsoevidently 1573. A better name would probably be Family 2127, as 2127is probably the best manuscript of the type. There are hints of a connectionwith the Armenian; 256 is a Greek/Armenian diglot). 365 agrees with 2127 about85% of the time (90% of the time in non-Byzantine readings), includingsuch noteworthy readings as

Other important agreements with family 2127 (although not with 2127itself) include:

Von Soden, as noted, considered family 1319 to belong to the I type.However, it has many more Alexandrian than "Western" readings.365 seems to be a slightly mixed member of the group (it is more Byzantinethan, e.g., 2127), perhaps closest to 1573.

Von Soden lists 365 as Ik in the Gospels and K in the Actsand Epistles. Wisse lists it asΠb in Luke(1319 and 2127 also belong to Family Π).Aland and Aland list 365 as Category III in the Paul andCategory V elsewhere.

The following offers a brief summary of information about the various membersof Family 2127 (note: Citations are for Paul, although von Soden, Merk, andBover generally cite the same manuscripts in the Acts and Catholics):

MSDateLocationCatalog NumberSoden
Cited inComment
256XI/XIIParisNational Libr. Armen. 9Ia3II Soden, Merk, Bover, UBS4Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse with lacunae. Greek/Armenian diglot. The Alands list it as Category II in Paul only; V elsewhere.
263XIIIParisNational Libr. Gr. 61Ia3III Soden, Merk, Bover, UBS4Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles. The Alands list it as Category III in Paul only; V elsewhere. Von Soden lists as K1 in the Gospels; Wisse lists it as Kx. "Probably from Asia Minor" (Scrivener).
365XIIIFlorenceLaurentiana Libr. VI.36.KIII NA26, NA27, UBS4Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles with lacunae. Valuable only in Paul.
1319XIIJerusalemTaphu 47.Ia3III Soden, Merk, Bover, UBS4Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles. The Alands list it as Category III in Paul only; V elsewhere. Von Soden lists as Ik in the Gospels; Wisse describes it as Πb.
1573XII/XIIIAthosVatopediu 939IIIUBS4 Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles. The Alands list it as Category III in Paul only; V elsewhere. Von Soden lists as Ir in the Gospels; Wisse describes it as Mix in Luke 1 and Group Λ in Luke 10 and 20.
2127XIIPalermoNational Libr. Sep. Mus. 4; also Philadelphia, Free Library, Lewis CollectionIa3IISoden, Merk, Bover, UBS3, UBS4Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles. The Alands list it as Category II in Paul only; V elsewhere. Von Soden lists as IB in the Gospels and K in the Catholics; Wisse describes it as Π473. The number 1815 was also assigned to this manuscript. Probably the best manuscript of the family, although it seems to be prone to occasional short omissions.

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript
von Soden: δ367. Tischendorf: 145a; 181p


M. Davies, The Text of the Pauline Epistles in MS. 2344 (Studies& Documents 38, 1968) collates 365 for Galatians (only).

Sample Plates:

Editions which cite:
Cited in NA26 and NA27 for Paul.
Cited in UBS4 for Paul.

Other Works:

Manuscript 372

Rome, Vatican Library Greek 1161. Soden'sε600.Contains the Gospels, breaking off at John 3:1. Dated to the fifteenthcentury by Scrivener, the sixteenth century by von Soden and Aland.Classified as Ia by von Soden, which would make it "Western"or "Cæsarean." Wisse does not find a relationship to the majormanuscripts of either group, but concedes that it has a mixed text, whichhe describes as "very strange." The Alands do not assign 372 to anyCategory; this at least seems to confirmthat it is not purely Byzantine. Scrivener describes it as "beautifullywritten," but lists it as having almost no marginal equipment ( lectionary information or Eusebian apparatus), and what it has is inLatin. One wonders if the Latin did not somehow influence the Greek.

Manuscript 383

Oxford, Bodleian Library E. D. Clarke 9. Soden'sα353; Tischendorf'sand Scrivener's 58a, 224p.Contains the Acts and Epistles (Heb. 13:7-end have been lost). Universallydated to the thirteenth century.Classified as Ic2 by von Soden. In Acts, this places 383with manuscripts such as 6142147, with 1108 1245 1518 1611 2138 (Ic1) at a greater distance.This corresponds with conventional wisdom that makes 383 a secondarywitness to the "Western" text of Acts. (Though it should benoted that it has not clearly been demonstrated that Family2138, to which 383 evidentlybelongs, is actually "Western.") In Paul, 383 and itsallies appear to be much more Byzantine (this is perhaps confirmed bythe Alands, who declined to place 383 in a Category.This often indicates a manuscript largely but not purely Byzantine).In the Catholics, 383 is again grouped with 614 2147 etc. by Von Soden, butneither Wachtel nor Amphoux lists it as a member of Family 2138. It seemslikely that it is again Byzantine in these books. Collated byAugust Pott in Der abendlädische Text der Apostelgeschichte unddie Wir-Wuelle, and has been used by many others such as Clark and Ropesin determining the "Western" text of Acts.
The text of Acts 13-22 is collated in A. V. Valentine-Richards, The Text of Acts in Codex 614 (Tisch. 137) and its allies<,/i> which gives a complete text of 614 along with collations of 383 431 1518. However, although this book was published in 1934 (and reissued in paperback in 2014), the work was done long enough ago that the collations use Tischendorf numbers rather than New Gregory numbers.
According to the notes in the Valentine-Richards book, 383 belongs withFamily 2138only in Acts 13-22,with the rest being Byzantine, which is why it is collated only for those books.

Manuscript 423

Munich, Bavarian State Library 36, 37. Soden'sNμ60,Nι60;Tischendorf/Scrivener 423e+425e.Two volumes, the first containing Matthew (complete) with the catenaof Nicetas (this is Tischendorf 423e) and the secondJohn (also complete and with what Scrivener calls a "very full"catena of Nicetas). The first volume contains a colophon dating it to1566. The scribe is unnamed, but wrote two manuscripts which were inthe Tischendorf list (424e, a commentary on Luke, and 432e,a commentary on Mark) which Gregory deleted from the catalog. It is notcertain that the manuscript was ever intended to include Mark or Luke;the Matthew volume is marked Tomos A and the John volume is Tomos B.Little is known of the text; Von Soden simply listed it as a Nicetasmanuscript, and of course it did not contain Luke, so Wisse could notclassify it. The Alands do not place it in any Category,but it is not clear whether this is because of its text or because ofthe limited sample size.

Manuscript 424

Location/Catalog Number

Vienna. Catalog number: Nat. Bibl. Theol. Gr. 302, folios 1-353.


424 contains the Acts, Epistles, and Revelation (the latter missing 15:6-17:3,18:10-19:9, 20:8-22:21). It is written on parchment, one column per page.


Dated paleographically to the eleventh century. The original run ofthe text does not contain an unusual number of obvious errors, but the manuscript has beenheavily corrected (see below).

Description and Text-type

The original text of 424 is of the ordinary Byzantine type of the period,and is in no way worthy of note. However, the manuscript has been subjectedto a complete revision in the Pauline and Catholic Epistles, constitutingmany hundreds of alterations (with three hands reportedly involved; see alsothe entry on correctors).Some noteworthy examples include:

It will be observed that 424** shares all of these readings with1739.This pattern continues in the uncited readings; apart from trivial corrections,the corrections agree with 1739 over 90% of the time -- and even wherethey do not agree with 1739, other members of family 1739 (e.g. 6, 1881)can be found which agree with 424**. (The connection of 1739 and 424**has been known almost since the former was discovered, and more recently wasreaffirmed by Birdsall.)

Within family 1739, 424** is perhaps closest to 6 (see, e.g., theirunique readings χαριτος forπιστεως in Rom. 12:3and ευωχιαιςin Jude 12). The two are by no means identical(as the list above shows), but 6 424** appear to me to form a subfamily withinfamily 1739.

This does not mean that the corrected text of 424 is as important atext as 1739. It remains more Byzantine than anything else. But where 424**presents us with a non-Byzantine reading, it should be treated as veryimportant, especially when supported by some other member of family 1739such as 6, 1739, 1881, or 0243.

Von Soden lists 424** as H in the Acts and Epistles (with the(pseudo-)Oecumenius commentary on the Praxapostolos); in the Apocalypsehe describes it as Io1. Aland and Aland list 424* as CategoryV and 424** as Category III (in Paul and the Catholics). Richards lists424* as belonging to group B6 and 424 as corrected as belongingto group M2 in 1 John and MW in 2 and 3 John. (This,of course, ignores the obvious facts that 2 John and 3 John are too shortto allow textual classification, the fact that "mixed" is nota text-type, and the fact that we should treat the corrections in 424 asdistinct from 424 as corrected.) In the Apocalypse, Schmid placed it inthe "b" group of the K type.

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript
von Soden: O12. Tischendorf: 66a; 67p;34r

J.N. Birdsall, A Study of MS. 1739 and its Relationship to MSS.6, 424, 1908, and M (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 1959)


Sample Plates:
Aland & Aland (1 page)

Editions which cite:
Cited in UBS4 for Paul.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover, but very imperfectly.
Also cited frequently by Souter.

Other Works:

Manuscript 429

Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek 16.7 A0. Soden'sα398 (Acts and Epistles),α1471 (Apocalypse);Tischendorf/Scrivener 69a, 74p, 30r.Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse complete. The Acts and Epistleswere written by a monk named George in the thirteenth (Scrivener) orfourteenth (Aland) century. The Apocalypse was added later in afourteenth (Scrivener) or fifteenth (Aland) century hand. The manuscript hasrelatively little in the way of reader aids, but has "manymarginal readings." The text is an interesting mix; Von Sodenclassifies it as Ib1 in the Acts and Epistles (grouping itwith 2065221758 1831 1891 etc.) and as K in the Apocalypse, but infact the matter is much more complicated. The Alands correctly assessit as Category III in the Acts andCatholic Epistles and as Category V in Paul and the Apocalypse. Inthe Acts, 429 has been shown by Geer to belongwith Family 1739(206 322 323 429 522 630 945 1704 1739 1891 2200), being closest to 206 522.Like 206 and 522 -- and also 630and 2200, with which 429 seems to form a group -- 429 shifts to Family2138 in the CatholicEpistles (where its classification has been confirmed by both Amphouxand Wachtel). The manuscript (again like 206 522, but unlike 630 2200)loses almost all value in Paul, however; the Alands correctly assess itas Byzantine. In the Apocalypse, 429 falls within the main or "a"Byzantine group headed by 046.See also under 2138 and Family 2138and 1739 and Family 1739as well at the extensive discussion under 206.

Manuscript 430

Munich, Bavarian State Library 437. Soden'sNι11.Contains only a fragment of the Gospel of John (1:1-8:14), with thecommentary of Nicetas. Dated to the eleventh century by all authorities.Its text, unfortunately, has never been properly assessed; Von Sodensimply lists it as a Nicetas manuscript, and Wisse and the Alandsdid not profile the text of John.

Manuscript 431

Stasbourg, Seminary 1. Soden'sδ268;Tischendorf/Scrivener 4312, 180a, 238p.Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles. Dated to the eleventhcentury by Scrivener, to the twelfth by von Soden and Aland. Kenyon datedit around 1200. It has a curious non-history: Gregory thought it hadperished in a fire in Strasbourg in 1870, but later discovered that ithad been moved before the fire. It is described as small but beautiful.
In the Gospels, von Soden lists 431 as Ak and Wisse as1167 (indicating rough agreement, as six of Von Soden's Akwitnesses are listed by Wisse as part of 1167). The Alands list itas Category V, i.e. Byzantine.In the Acts and Catholic Epistles, the text is more interesting;here the Alands raise it to CategoryIII, and von Soden lists it as Ia1 (which in Acts includesthe "Western" text, but clearly von Soden is actuallyplacing it with the rather amorphous but interesting group ofminuscules 36 88 181 307 453 610 915 917 1829 1874 1898. Apparently,though, he based this on the text of Acts 13 only). Amphoux,however, mentions it as a member ofFamily 2138 (though thisis perhaps on the basis of its affinities in the Catholic Epistles).This is not supported by Wachtel, who lists it simply asa manuscript with 20-30% non-Byzantine readings -- and indeed, hisevidence makes it highly unlikely that it is a member of Family 2138.In Paul, von Soden still reports the manuscript to be Ia1, butthe Alands return it to Category V.Scrivener simply says that the manuscript has "many unusual readings,"but it is not clear which part of the manuscript he is referring to.That it goes with Family 2138 inActs seems likely based on the collation in A. V. Valentine-Richards, The Text of Acts in Codex 614 (Tisch. 137) and its allies, which gives a complete text of 614 in Acts along with collations of 383 431 1518.(Note, however, that although this book was published in 1934 (and reissued in paperback in 2014), the work was done long enough ago that the collations use Tischendorf numbers rather than New Gregory numbers.)

Manuscript 436

Location/Catalog Number

Rome. Catalog number: Vatican Library Gr. 436.


436 contains the Acts and Epistles. It is written on parchment, one columnper page.


Usually dated paleographically to the eleventh century; NA27moves it up to the tenth century.

Description and Text-type

436 is generally regarded as a mixed Alexandrian manuscript (so, e.g.the Alands place it in Category III). Wachtel lists it in the leastByzantine (40%) category in the Catholic Epistles, pairing it with 1067.

Von Soden classifies 436 as Ia3, but this group in factconsists mostly of mixed Alexandrian witnesses. Thus von Soden's classificationimplicitly agrees with that of the Alands.

Detailed investigation seems generally to support Wachtel's conclusionsin the Catholics. It is one of the better minuscules, and agrees most stronglywith A, 33, and the Bohairic Coptic, making it a primary witness to thedominant form of the Alexandrian text. It has very few unique readings.

In Paul the manuscript is somewhat less good; it agrees with the Byzantinetext more than anything else. Apart perhaps from 1067, it seems to fall closest to104. Even this kinship is rather distant. Overall, the ancestry of the textseems to belong with 1962, family 2127, and the other late Alexandrian manuscripts(this agrees generally with von Soden's results).

As far back as the nineteenth century, 436 was linked with 69, and Daviesextends this group to include 462 (known to be very closely related to 69),330, and 2344. The link to 330 appears false; their similarities lie simplyin late Alexandrian readings. The tie to 69 and 462 appears stronger; 436 and462 have high rates of agreement where both are non-Byzantine. However, theyare not immediate kin; an examination of Davies's collations shows thatthey do not share many special readings, and that they have each suffereddistinct patterns of Byzantine corruptions (with 462 being much the moreByzantine of the two; it is closer to the Byzantine text than to 436).

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript
von Soden: α172. Tischendorf: 73a; 80p.


M. Davies, The Text of the Pauline Epistles in MS. 2344 (Studies& Documents 38, 1968) collates 436 for Paul, and discusses its relationshipwith 330, 462, and especially 2344.

Sample Plates:

Editions which cite:
Cited in NA28 for the Catholic Epistles.
Cited in UBS3 for the Acts and Epistles, and inUBS4 for Paul and the Catholics.
Cited in von Soden, Merk, and Bover for the Acts and Epistles.

Other Works:

Manuscript 442

Uppsala, University Library Greek 1. Soden'sO18; Tischendorf's 73p, 68c.A very curious manuscript, because it is really twomanuscripts in one volume, designated 441 and 442. The most likelyexplanation is that the two manuscripts were both damaged and sowere bound together -- even though this resulted in some overlap.441 includes leaves 3-182 (with Acts 8:14-end plus Romans and1 Corinthians 1:1-15:38); 442, which consists of leaves 183-440,contains 1 Corinthians 13:6-end (thus overlapping 441 for two anda half chapters), all the rest of Paul from 2 Corinthians on,and the Catholic Epistles. Both are commentary manuscripts,listed by von Soden as Oecumenius's commentary. Thus they area logical pair of manuscripts to bundle together -- but theirtexts are not the same. What is more, their texts are not at alltypical of most of the other manuscripts von Sodden lists asOecumenius commentary manuscripts, most of which (e.g.056 and 0142)are essentially Byzantine. According to Scrivener, it waspurchased in 1673 at Venice by Sparvenfeldt; this perhapsimplies that it was taken to Venice from the east, but thereis no clear indication of its source. Scrivener says that itresembled 33 in Paul, and it is one ofthe minuscules most often cited by Tischendorf in thatcorpus. But the similarity to 33 seems exaggerated to me;based on the readings cited by Tischendorf, it seemscloser to the Euthalian group as represented, e.g., by365 and Family 2127. The Alandsrate 442 as Category II(while rating 441 as CategoryIII). Thus the decision to cite it for the CatholicEpistles in NA28 was appropriate.

Manuscript 443

Cambridge, University Library Nn.ii.36. Soden'sε270.Contains the Gospels complete. Dated paleographically to the twelfthcentury by all authorities. Classified by von Soden asIo; this amorphous group also contains U X 213 10711321(part) 1574 2145. This is not confirmed by Wisse (who dissolvesIo, and evidently with good reason); he reports 443 asa memberof M159 (along with 159 and part of 1557).The Alands list 443 as Category V.Scrivener reports that the ordinaryκεφαλαια havebeen subdivided in this manuscript. It has the Eusebian apparatus,but the lectionary data is partial, coming from another, apparentlylater hand.

Manuscript 451

Rome, Vatican Library Urbin. Gr. 3. Soden'sα178;Tischendorf/Scrivener 79a, 90p.Contains the Acts and Epistles complete. Universally dated to theeleventh century. Von Soden lists it as a K witness, and this appearsto be true in the Acts and Catholic Epistles. Certainly theAlands concur, placing 451 in Category Vin those books, with only three non-Byzantine readings (out of 105) in Actsand 8 (out of 98) in the Catholics. Matters change entirely in Paul,and the Alands reflect this by upgrading the manuscript toCategory III. Here 451 is a clear andobvious member of family 330; the two agree infully 436 of 464 test readings, including 75 of 77 readings whereboth are non-Byzantine. Over a third of their 28 differences arein Hebrews, where 330 is largely Byzantine. (The third member ofthis family, 2492, is by no means this close to the other two.) It ispossible that 451 and 330 are sisters, with the common exemplarhaving some corrections between the time 451 and 330 were copied.Certainly the two have a common ancestor not far back in theirancestry. It is conceivable that 451 is the ancestor of 330, butthis seems somewhat unlikely, as the following readings from the apparatusof GNT3 demonstrate:

For more about family 330, see the notes on 330.

Manuscript 453 and Family 453

Location/Catalog Number

Rome. Catalog number: Vatican Library Barb. Greek 582.


453 contains the Acts and Catholic Epistles complete, with a commentary (reportedby Von Soden to be that of Andreas).


Dated by the Kurzgefasste Liste, following Gregory, to the fourteenthcentury. Scrivener, however, listed an eleventh century date. (We should note thatScrivener's information was incomplete. Scholz was unable to see the manuscript,and Scrivener's list says that the manuscript "contains but one chapter of theActs and the Catholic Epistles.")

Description and Text-type

Von Soden lists 453 as a member of Ia1 in Acts, a diverse groupcontaining, e.g., D 88 181 431 915 917 1829 1874 1898. But this group alsocontains 36 (now renumbered 2818) 307 453 610. All of thesemanuscripts, according to Von Soden, have the Andreas commentary, and they arecertainly closely related. The following shows the percentage agreements ofthese manuscripts, and certain control manuscripts, in the variants noted inUBS4. Agreements over 90% are highlighted:


(We should note that Von Soden lists several other Andreas manuscripts:K/018, 437, 832, 886, 1895, 2186. K, however, does not contain the Acts --and is Byzantine in any case. 832 2186 also lack Acts. 437 887 1895 containActs, but based on the information compiled by the Alands, they cannotbe true members of Family 453; either they are severely mixed or they belongto another text-type.)

These numbers demonstrate clearly that there is a group consisting ofthese five manuscripts. The question then becomes, what is the nature of theFamily 453 text? The Alands esteem it highly; in Acts, they list 36 asCategory II and 307 453 610 1678 asCategory III (we should note, however, thatthere is no reason, based on their numbers, to separate 36 from the other four;all have almost exactly the same ratio of Byzantine readings to UBS readings).But the Alands' classification does not characterize text-types; it simply tellsus how non-Byzantine a manuscript is. If we look at the above list, it wouldappear that the members of Family 36 fall closer to1739 than to any of the otherprimary manuscripts (e.g. ℵA B D L P 614). And indeed, we find Thomas C. Geer, Jr., who studiedFamily 1739 in Acts, labelling 453 as a weak member: it is "somewhatsignificantly related to [the leading manuscripts of Family 1739]" --but he adds that it "does not have a strong enough relationship to beconsidered a leading member of the family... it is already clear that itis a 'cousin' at best" (Family 1739 in Acts, p. 100). Geerdid not study the other members of Family 453, but there is every reasonto believe that he would have regarded the other members similarly.The evidence listed in the table above is also inconclusive; while 453 andits relatives agree with 1739 on the order of 75% of the time in the sample(which those who follow the ColwellDefinition would regard as close enough to belong to a text-type),it should be noted that the above sample is biased; it contains manyreadings where D opposes the entire Greek tradition -- readings whichshould not be counted under the Colwell definition. If these are omitted,the agreement between 1739 and Family 453 falls well below the 70% threshhold(on the order of 65%). It's also noteworthy that 453 agrees more with1739's more Byzantine relatives (945 1891) than with 1739 itself. Finally,if we examine the number of non-Byzantine agreements in the above sample,453 does not stand all that close to 1739; it has 37 such agreementswith 1739, but 37 also with P74 and B (even though P74is not complete), 36 with ℵ --and, by comparison, 53 non-Byzantine agreements with 36, 57 with 307, 50with 610, and 53 with 1678. Thus it would seem likely that 453 andFamily 453, while they may share common influences with Family 1739, arenot truly members of the same text-type (though a fuller study wouldbe needed to make this certain; Geer's work, even if one ignoresseveral methodological problems, did not examine Family 453 as a whole,and the data for Acts given above is based on too small a sample).

In the Catholic Epistles, the situation changes somewhat. The Alands'data implies that 453 and its relatives are much more Byzantine in theCatholic Epistles than in Acts. Wachtel elaborates this analysis of thedata considerably. 453 and its relatives are listed among the manuscripts witha text 30-40% non-Byzantine. Within this class (not really a text-type),we find 453 heading a group of eight manuscripts: 36, 94, 307, 453, 918,920, 1678, 2197. 36, 307, and 1678 we of course recognize as members ofFamily 453 in Acts. 94 is reported by Von Soden to have Oecumenius's commentaryon the Acts and Epistles, but has Andreas on the Apocalypse. 918 is listed asanother Oecumenius manuscript by Von Soden (though the Kurzgefasste Listedoes not show it as having a commentary); it does not contain Acts. 920 is nota commentary manuscript, but Von Soden lists it as another Iamanuscript (although von Soden assigns it to the Ia3 group ratherthan Ia1). 2197 contains only Paul and Catholic Epistles,and Von Soden does not seem to have classified it outside Paul (sincehe lists it simply as a Theophylact/Paul manuscript).

Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript

von Soden: Aπρ40
Tischendorf/Scrivener: 453a



Sample Plates:

Editions which cite:
Cited in UBS4 for Acts.

Other Works:
Thomas C. Geer, Jr., Family 1739 in Acts, Scholars Press, 1994,discusses 453 in the context of Family 1739.

Manuscript 472

London, Lambeth Palace 1177. Soden'sε1386;Scrivener's 511e/cscr.Contains the Gospels with extensive lacunae (lacking Matt. 4:1-7:6,20:21-21:12, Luke 4:29-5:1, 16:24-17:13, 20:19-41, John 6:51-8:2,12:20-40, 14:27-15:13, 17:6-18:2, 18:37-19:14.Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century by Alandand von Soden; Scrivener says eleventh or twelfth. Classified by von Soden asI', that is, among the miscellaneous "Western"/Byzantinemixed manuscripts. Wisse's data would seem to at least allow thepossibility that it is mixed with something not quite Byzantine; helists it as "Mix/Kmix/Mix; pair with 1009." This isgiven some additional support by the Alands, who do not assign472 to any Category. Scrivenernotes that it is "for valuable readings by far the mostimportant at Lambeth [presumably of the gospel minuscules],shamefully ill written, torn and much mutilated." It hasrather incomplete equipment: Ammonian sections but no Eusebiandata; lectionary markings and Synaxarion but no Menologion;partial κεφαλαια.

Manuscript 473

London, Lambeth Palace 1178. Soden'sε1390;Scrivener's 512e/dscr.Contains the Gospels, now complete (the first few leaves, containingintroductory matter and Matt. 1:1-8, were lost for a time).Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century by the Listeand von Soden; Scrivener offers the curious dating "xi or xiv."Classified by von Soden asIkc,that is, as part of the third group of Family Π witnesses,along with such manuscripts as 229 280 482 1354. Wisse's resultsgenerally confirm this; 473 is listed as a member ofΠ473 --although it should be noted that none of von Soden's otherIkc witnesses are part of Π473. TheAlands classify 473 as Category V.Physically, Scrivener describes the manuscript as "A noble-lookingcopy" and written "in a fine hand, splendidly illuminated,and with much curious matter in the subscriptions." Ithas the usual Eusebian apparatus and lectionary equipment.

Manuscript 476

London, British Museum, Arundel 524. Soden'sε1126;Scrivener's 566e/hscr.Contains the Gospels complete.Dated paleographically to the eleventh century by all authorities.Classified by von Soden as K1. Wisse almost agrees,listing the manuscript as Kx (to Wisse, K1is part of Kx). As one would expect, theAlands classify 476 as Category V.Physically, 476 is rather small (just more than 17x13 cm),but otherwise un-noteworthy; it has the usual Eusebian andlectionary apparatus.

Manuscript 477

Cambridge, Trinity College B.X.17. Soden'sε350;Scrivener's 508e, which he included in his collations as i.Contains the Gospels, on vellum with some leaves of paper. The KurzgefassteListe says it is complete, but M. R. James notes that quire IH* has lost itsfourth leaf, and quires ΛH and M have lost their eighth leaves. In addition,there are twelve leaves which have been replaced by cancels. Despite the cancels.James calls it "well written."Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century by all recent authorities(Bentley, who gave it to Trinity College -- it was originally from the monasteryof Pantocrator on Athos --dated it xi). Classified by von Soden asIβa;other members of this group include 348 and 1279; and the "b"group of this type contains 16 1216 1579 1588(part). Wisse givesa similar classification, placing 477 in Group 1216 (one of two groupsWisse associated withIβ,Group 16 being the other). Wisse calls Group 1216 clearly distinctfrom Kx, but the Alands classify 477 asCategory V.
It appears, however, that the manuscript is block mixed; James Dowdentells me that Roger Omanson finds it to be Kx in Mark.
477 has only limited marginalia: Ammonian Sections but no Eusebianapparatus, and while the lectionary information is present, thereis no menologion. Even the synaxarion may be an afterthought, as it(and the hypotheses to Matthew) are on six paper leaves at thebeginning while the remainder ofthe manuscript (including the list of readings at the end)is parchment.

Manuscript 482

British Library Burney 20. Soden'sε329;Scrivener's 570e/pscr.Contains the Gospels complete.Dated by its colophon to 1285 -- although, in an interesting forgery,this has been altered to read 985 (the two have the sameindiction). Classified by von Soden asIkc,that is, as part of the third group of Family Π witnesses,along with such manuscripts as 229 280 473 1354. Wisse's results partlyconfirm this; he lists 482 asKxaa.Scrivener, who collated the manuscript, comments that it is "quite equalin value to Cod. cscr [472, which shows in Wisse's list asprimarily mixed]... and often agrees closely with wscr [489,which is listed by Wisse as pureΠa]."The Alands, however, assign 482 toCategory V. As members of FamilyΠ more often thannot are uncategorized in their lists, they would seem to supply some faintsupport for the Wisse's contention that 482 has some Kx.The manuscript was written by a monk named Theophilus, and Scrivenerreports that it has "many corrections" from a later hand,which also added the lectionary lists (though the lectionary markingsin the text, like the Eusebian apparatus, are from the first hand).

Manuscript 485

London, British Library Burney 23. Soden'sε1386;Scrivener's 572e/sscr.Contains the Gospels with major lacunae (lacking Luke 5:22-9:32,11:31-12:25, 27:24-28:4, John 8:14-end).Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century by von Soden andAland; Scrivener suggests the twelfth. Classified by von Soden asI', i.e. in the miscellaneous vaguely "Western" witnesses.Wisse classifies it as Kx, and this is supported by theAlands, who list it as Category V.Von Soden may have been confused by the way it was written; Scrivenerdescribes the manuscript as "boldly but carelessly written" --though he also comments "with many later changes and weighty readings."It has full lectionary equipment and the Ammonian Sections, but not theEusebian apparatus.

Manuscript 489

Cambridge, Trinity College B.X.16. Soden'sδ459; Tischendorf's 489e, 195a,252p. Scrivener's 507e, 224a,260p; he collates it in Codex Augiensis,,using the symbol w in the Gospels and k in the Epistles. Hort used the number102 for it.Contains the entire New Testament except the Apocalypse, plus much additionalmaterial. The order is Gospels, Acts, Catholic Epistles, Paul, with Hebrewsat the end. It has just about every reader help ever invented -- lectionarylists, prologues (although some of these are slightly disarranged), Eusebianapparatus, you name it. At the end, it also has the Pseudo-Dorotheus's treatiseon the 72 disciples, a brief vita Jacobi, and some other odds and ends(all this, including the synaxarion and calendar of readings, occupies onlya couple of dozen pages, although there are lacunae and the end seems to be lost).The colophon credits it to Jacobus, on Mount Sinai, and dates itto 1316. Scrivener describes it as "inelegantly written."It is notable that there are fully a dozen cancels in the last several quires (althoughno fewer than nine of these are in quire κα, so it may just be that this quire wasmessed up beyond fixing). Classified by von Soden asIκa in the gospels and Ia2 in the Acts and epistles.The former assessment is confirmed by Wisse, who describes 489 as Πa inall chapters of Luke. He pairs it with 1219 -- an interesting assessment, since 1216(which is dated XI century) remains at Sinai. The relationship between the two mightbe worth examining. Scrivener also mentions a similarity to his 570e, i.e.482 (XII century). This relationship may not be genetic; 482 is listed by Wisse asΠa in Luke 10 and 20, but Kx in Luke 1; probably what Scrivenernoticed was simply the Family Π readings. The Alands do not place 489 in anyCategory; this is fairly typical of their treatmentof Family Π manuscripts. The text of the Acts and Epistles might warrant furtherexamination.

Manuscript 495

London, British Library Add. 16183. Soden'sε243;Scrivener's 581e.Contains the Gospels complete, though some of the introductorymaterial has been lost. Dated paleographically to the twelfth century.Classified by von Soden asI', i.e. in the miscellaneous vaguely "Western" witnesses.Wisse classifies it as Kmix, while the Alands do not list it asbelonging to any Category.All of these descriptions, diverse as they sound, imply much thesame thing: A manuscript clearly Byzantine, but with some readingsnot associated with Kx. Whether these readings have anyreal value must await a more detailed study.It has a full apparatus (Eusebian materials, lectionary equipment,etc.), though the Eusebian tables were not finished. The hand isdescribed by Scrivener as "minute." The manuscript isthought to have been taken from Sinai.